Posts Tagged ‘Qatar’

Beginning in the late Nineties, Qatar launched a comprehensive set of education reforms to more effectively align its education and training system with its macroeconomic policies aimed at advancing towards a knowledge-based economy. However, technical vocational education and training (TVET) has not been a significant focus of educational reforms.

Though the need for more effective TVET systems emerged as early as the 1940s when Qatar started producing and exporting oil, the government has primarily focused on supply side, expansionary educational policies aimed at establishing new TVET institutions. However, many of the TVET governance institutions that prevent underinvestment in skills, provide adequate regulation, and coordinate stakeholders are still in a nascent state.

TVET policies in Qatar have largely proceeded without a clear conceptualization of the scope of TVET and which types of institutions should be included in the TVET policy and which ones should be excluded. TVET faces an identity crisis in which people are unhappy with the name, the image, and reputation. It remains unclear how technological TVET can be, what fields it encompasses, and whether TVET leads to jobs which are considered acceptable to Qataris.

In the presentation below, we highlight some of the issues Qatar will need to address to develop a national TVET strategy which overcomes existing gender issues.

The Arab World generally has low rates of female entrepreneurship. Region-wide, women own 13% of firms, which is lower than most other regions including Europe, Central Asia, East Asia, and Latin America (Chamlou, 2008). One reason for low official rates of female entrepreneurship in the region is that a considerable amount of female entrepreneurship is conducted informally through home-based businesses which are not captured by official statistics. Traditional beliefs about the role of women and familial obligations remain a barrier to increased levels of entrepreneurship (Aradi, Buckner, & Schwalje, Forthcoming).

In the GCC, evidence suggests that female entrepreneurship rates are substantially lower than male entrepreneurship rates. In Qatar, for example, female owned businesses constitute only 3.5% of all businesses (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2009). Among respondents to a Global Entrepreneurship Monitoring report on entrepreneurship in the UAE, 11.8% of male respondents were early stage entrepreneurs while only 7.6% of women were early stage entrepreneurs. However, male respondents in the UAE were much more likely to be established entrepreneurs – at 7%, while only 0.9% of females were established entrepreneurs (El-Sokari, Vanhorne, Zeng-Yuhuang, & Alawad, 2013). In Saudi Arabia, approximately 12% of males are engaged in early stage entrepreneurship while only 6% of women are engaged in early stage entrepreneurial activities (Global Entrepreneurship Research Association, 2013). Such findings suggest males in the GCC have generally higher rates of entrepreneurship and are more likely to own businesses which persist beyond the startup stage.

View Our Other Work on Entrepreneurship and Technical Vocational Education and Training in the Arab World

Promoting Entrepreneurship in the Arab World: The Need for Tailored National Approaches

Tahseen Consulting’s Work on Female Participation in Technical and Vocational Education and Employment Featured in Qatar Today

Women entrepreneurs face a number of obstacles which serve to depress female entrepreneurship rates. A study of female entrepreneurship in the region found that while networks of support have been successful in some countries such as Tunisia, Morocco, and Lebanon, such networks have been less successful in other Arab countries. The study finds that “businesswomen networks are in their infancy and face several obstacles such as attracting funding, in the face of donor priorities for provision of microfinance, and growing the network” (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2009, p. 5). Nonetheless, networks that support female businesswomen, such as the Bahrain Businesswomen Society, Business and Professional Women – Kuwait, Omani Women’s Association, Dubai Business Women’s Council, and the Qatar Women Business Forum, have been quite active over the past few years promoting female participation in business with events and development programs (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2009). Support from such organizations may prove an effective strategy for encouraging more women to become entrepreneurs and to overcome cultural resistance to female entrepreneurship. Across the GCC, initiatives aimed at supporting women entrepreneurs are much more likely to take the form of professional associations or committees housed within chambers of commerce. Qatar and Saudi Arabia appear to be the only countries in the GCC with dedicated business centers and incubators that exclusively serve women (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2013).

Females in many GCC nations also face unique obstacles to obtain funding to start their businesses. In addition to the lack of seed and venture funding that affects the majority of countries in the Arab region, research indicates that females in Qatar require guarantors in order to obtain business loans from banks. In Saudi Arabia, surveys and interviews with female entrepreneurs found that 82.2% of registered businesswomen rely on personal savings to fund their businesses and do not seek external funding (Ahmad, 2011). These female entrepreneurs also stated that they “believe that many social and regulatory interactions are more challenging for them because of their gender,” and, as a result, they relied substantially on male relatives to complete business transactions (p. 612).

In the UAE, a survey with entrepreneurs who had closed their businesses found that the majority of female entrepreneurs who closed their business did so because of personal reasons. This contrasts sharply to males, the majority of whom stated that they closed their business because they were not profitable (El-Sokari et al., 2013). It is not clear from the report what personal reasons are causing women to close their businesses, but the report calls for more research to understand why women are more likely to discontinue their business for non-business related matters.

Low rates of female entrepreneurship should not be thought to imply that women are not interested in entrepreneurship. According to interviews in Qatar, entrepreneurship is an appealing career choice for women because it allows them to have flexibility over their schedule and can often be pursued in addition to full-time public sector work. High levels of domestic staff employed in Gulf homes also means that women often have time for entrepreneurship. Interviews suggested that many female entrepreneurs in Qatar maintain their day job in the public sector while they pursue entrepreneurial endeavors to ensure a steady income and retain rights to a pension. However, it is not well understood what circumstances must be present in order for such entrepreneurs to make the step to pursue their entrepreneurial endeavors full time (Aradi et al., Forthcoming).

A recent survey of Gulf residents also found that women have many of the characteristics needed to be successful entrepreneurs, but they are less oriented towards entrepreneurship. The survey found that women in GCC countries are generally as likely as men to report being optimistic, profit-oriented, and persistent (Bugshan, 2012) ). Nonetheless, women in GCC countries are significantly less likely to say that they have access to mentors who could offer advice about managing a business. Figure 13 shows that the gender gap is substantial in some countries, at 15% in the UAE and 19% in Bahrain. This study suggests that the needs of male and female entrepreneurs differ slightly, and one role for regional entrepreneurship initiatives is to link females with business networks and possible mentors.

Emerging Support Systems for Female Entrepreneurship

Many GCC nations have recently developed entrepreneurship education programs to develop young people’s interests and capabilities in entrepreneurship. Increasingly, these programs focus on women either explicitly or implicitly due to program design. Although the UAE offers no specific programs that target the needs of female entrepreneurs, women entrepreneurship is being supported through the Sougha initiative which was founded by the Khalifa Fund for Enterprise Development “with the aim to create socio-economic opportunities for Emirati artisans and preserve the Emirati heritage by providing the needed support to achieve social good” (El-Sokari et al., 2013, p. 23). Because the focus of the program is handicrafts, participants tend to be women. Sougha has resulted in sales over $1 million and provided income to 148 Emirati families (El-Sokari et al., 2013). Similarly, in Saudi Arabia, the government “offers 3,000 Saudi Riyals a month for women to start new businesses” (Dubai Women Establishment, 2009, p. 40).

In 2006, Oman’s new Vision for Education was launched which included the specific objective of developing students’ entrepreneurial skills. One of the programs launched under the new vision, SANAD, was established to help “job seekers among citizens with opportunities to gain their living and to support self-employment projects and develop small businesses” (Ministry of Manpower, 2013). The program includes training on business skills and also allows would-be entrepreneurs to submit proposals for small start-up loans. As of 2010, the program had supported over 28,000 Omani youth with start-up funds and had provided at least 7,000 Omanis technical and vocational training (Ministry of Manpower, 2013). However, no public data is available on the percentage of beneficiaries who are female or whether the program has led to female firm creation and increased employment. Prior research in non-GCC Arab nations has found that entrepreneurship and labor market programs often tend to “lack the necessary mix of design features that make programs effective” (Angel-Urdinola, Semlali, & Brodmann, 2010, p. 1).

Despite widespread support for entrepreneurship training and assistance programs in the GCC, very little data on the participation or success of women has been collected. Programs such as SANAD offer crucial support for entrepreneurship, but, without an explicit engagement with women’s communities, it is likely that women are not fully benefiting from such initiatives. As of now, SANAD does not offer any training programs specifically for females nor does it appear to track the number of women trainees, projects supported by women, or the percent of women beneficiaries. The example of SANAD from Oman is indicative of a widespread issue across the region concerning the infrequent use of performance monitoring and evaluation of public sector training and active labor market programs. Across the region, more data should be disaggregated by gender and participants tracked over time to understand who is benefiting and how female entrepreneurs’ proposals and businesses fare compared to those of men. This level of data collection would allow policymakers to more effectively target trainings to the specific needs of women entrepreneurs.

Based on the scarcity of initiatives which specifically target aspiring female entrepreneurs, it appears that more entrepreneurship education and training for women is needed in the GCC. While most GCC nations have supported entrepreneurship centers to improve the environment for entrepreneurship including providing funding and training, reducing bureaucracy, and establishing business incubators very few of these centers specifically cater to women’s needs. Moreover, without a critical presence of other women, females who desire to be entrepreneurs may not feel comfortable in such centers. There are few entrepreneurship centers specifically targeted to the distinct types of businesses women may found or designed to support their distinct needs. One example that is potentially replicable in the GCC is the Roudha Center in Qatar which is a business incubator specifically focused on training and enabling female entrepreneurs.

Due to the high number of females who exit the labor market in their thirties, one potential population segment for entrepreneurship training is college educated women who have exited the labor market after child birth and want to open a business to have flexibility in their working hours. Another area of focus may be female secondary school leavers and high school graduates who could benefit from entrepreneurship training to supplement their incomes. Female students are also a potential training beneficiary group that is often overlooked. According to interviews in Qatar, entrepreneurship training is rarely offered in K-12 schools due to lack of an approved curriculum. Rather than complementing existing curricula, females are exposed to entrepreneurship much later in their school or have to seek out such training at specialized institutions outside the formal education system (Aradi et al., Forthcoming). In the UAE, the Khalifa Fund for Enterprise Development has initiated two types of training programs in both government and private schools to “create a dynamic entrepreneurial culture”(Khalifa Fund for Enterprise Development, 2013). However, it is unclear how many students actually benefit and what the long-term outcomes of the program are.

Prior interviews suggest that, in GCC countries, entrepreneurship policies and educational policies are not necessarily aligned and are infrequently viewed as complimentary under national TVET policies. For example, policy makers and institutional administrators in Qatar mentioned the need to integrate entrepreneurship more effectively into the education system from an early age. Study participants also pointed to a need for career guidance to accommodate entrepreneurship so that it might be possible for students to differentiate between choices after secondary schooling like starting a business, joining the armed forces, seeking a job immediately, attending a TVET program, or continuing their studies at the higher education level (Aradi et al., Forthcoming).

References

Ahmad, S. (2011). Businesswomen in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Characteristic, Growth Patterns and Progression in a Regional Context. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, 30(7), 610-614.

Angel-Urdinola, D., Semlali, A., & Brodmann, S. (2010). Non-Public Provision of Active Labor Market Programs in Arab-Mediterranean Countries: An Inventory of Youth Programs.  Washington, DC: World Bank.

Aradi, W., Buckner, E., & Schwalje, W. (Forthcoming). Female Access to Technical Vocational Education and Training and Labor Market Outcomes in Qatar.  Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

Bugshan, F. (2012). Lack of Mentors May Hinder Women’s Entrepreneurship in GCC. Washington, DC: Gallup.

Chamlou, N. (2008). The Environment for Women’s Entrepreneurship in the Middle East and North Africa Region.  Washington, DC: World Bank.

Dubai Women Establishment. (2009). Arab Women Leadership Outlook 2009-2011.  Dubai: Dubai Women Establishment.

El-Sokari, H., Vanhorne, C., Zeng-Yuhuang, & Alawad, M. (2013). Entrepreneurship – An Emirati Perspective.  Abu Dhabi: Zayed University.

Global Entrepreneurship Research Association. (2013). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Key Indicators.  Retrieved December 1, from Global Entrepreneurship Research Association http://www.gemconsortium.org/key-indicators

Khalifa Fund for Enterprise Development. (2013). Khalifa Fund in Schools.   Retrieved November 27, 2013, from http://www.khalifafund.ae/En/BuildYoungEntrepreneurs/Pages/KhalifaFundinSchools.aspx

Ministry of Manpower. (2013). Sanad: An Overview.   Retrieved November 27, 2013, from www.manpower.gov.om/en/sanad_home.asp

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. (2009). Implementation of the 2007 Declaration on Fostering Women’s Entrepreneurship in the MENA Region.  Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. (2013). Directory of Initiatives Supporting Women Entrepreneurs in the Middle East and North Africa.   Retrieved November 27, 2013, from http://www.oecd.org/mena/investment/menawbfdirectory.htm

Qatar Today featured Tahseen Consulting’s research on the difficulties Qatar faces in terms of promoting technical and vocational education amongst females. We have included the original article below.

Women Wanted: Attracting Women to Technical Fields in Qatar

Over the past several decades Qatar has dramatically reformed its education and training system to align it with macroeconomic policies aimed at advancing towards a knowledge-based economy. However, technical vocational education and training (TVET) has not been a significant focus of educational reform. Though the need for a technically trained labor force was recognized by policy makers in Qatar as early as the 1940s when Qatar began exporting oil, dedicated TVET institutions began to emerge only in the late 1990s with establishment of several postsecondary institutions, two secondary institutions for boys, government-run training academies, and the emergence of a private training market.

Despite the proliferation of TVET institutions, many of the governance institutions that provide regulation and coordinate policy and institutional stakeholders are still in a nascent state. TVET policies in Qatar have largely proceeded without a clear conceptualization of what fields it encompasses and whether TVET leads to jobs which are considered acceptable to Qataris. Lack of a clear definition of what constitutes TVET and overcoming negative stereotypes related to TVET in Qatar are key challenges to policy formation. TVET faces an identity crisis in which people are unhappy with the name, the image, and reputation.

The Missing Half of the TVET Debate: Female Participation in TVET and Employment in Technical Fields

While prior research has established that Qatari females attend higher education at much higher rates than males and has explored reasons why men fail to continue on to higher education, very few studies have explored why Qatari females pursue academic education over TVET. There is also a lack of research concerning the labor market decisions of Qatari females and how highly technical, knowledge-intensive fields expected to emerge as a result of Qatar’s knowledge–based economic development will shape future education and employment decisions of females.

According to United Nations statistics, 73% of all students attending higher education programs in Qatar are women, second only to Bahrain in the Gulf Cooperation Council. However, only 38% of the students pursuing TVET education in Qatar are women despite emerging employment opportunities in technical fields. Qatar has one of the highest female labor market participation rates in the Arab World. Because a large number of women attend academic higher education and enter the labor market, many people view the lack of female enrollment and employment in technical fields as a low priority issue. However, high female employment concentrations in select public sector fields is inconsistent with the country’s economic ambitions to grow technology and innovation-driven industries as Qatar transitions to a knowledge economy. As Qatar prepares to host the World Cup in 2022 and continues to diversify its economy beyond the extractive industries, it must ensure that its education and training system is able to evolve to meet its economic ambitions, particularly with regards to inclusion of females in high skill, high wage technical fields which are expected to emerge as Qatar transitions to a knowledge-based economy.

Females Face Significant Challenges and Barriers to Entering Technical Work

A strong commitment was made to TVET reform and female employment in the Qatar National Vision 2030, National Development Strategy 2011 – 2016, and Education and Training Sector Strategy in order to realize Qatar’s economic development ambitions. However, several gender issues related to TVET participation and labor market outcomes for women in Qatar deserve attention:

Though improving, female enrollment in TVET is comparably low: Despite Qatar’s significant gains in reforming higher education, several institutional gaps still exist, such as a lack of secondary TVET schools for women. This lack of secondary technical schools for women stands at odds with data released by the Qatar Statistics Authority which show that Qatari women contribute significantly to emerging technical sectors of the Qatari economy such as ICT, utilities provision, oil and gas, and technical research. The large number of female students who pursue an academic higher education pathway in Qatar is heavily influenced by the absence of secondary TVET institutions for women, lack of early career guidance, and few experiential opportunities for girls to be exposed to technical fields at a young age. While notable increases towards gender parity in post-secondary TVET have been observed recently, there is still room for improvement and for rethinking how girls can be exposed to technical educational tracks earlier in their schooling.

There is also a strong economic rationale for women considering technical education and employment. Research from the Qatar General Secretariat for Development Planning shows that private rates of return for short, technically focused diploma studies exceed those for higher education. This means that, on average, women who pursue technical diplomas make more in terms of average lifetime salaries than women who pursue academic tracks at the higher education level.

Women receive less on the job training opportunities: Over the past decade, the number of training institutions which provide training privately and in the workplace in Qatar has grown dramatically. This is due to the emergence of a private training market as well as several government and mixed companies establishing internal training units. While lack of policies concerning licensing and quality control of Qatar’s private training institutions has been highlighted as a high priority issue, a potentially bigger issue of concern is that data from the Qatar Statistics Authority show women receive substantially less on the job training than men once they are employed. As more women enter the labor market in Qatar and work for longer periods before leaving the labor force, low levels of training for women could potentially serve as a bottleneck that limits the overall effectiveness of organizations in Qatar. Several studies show operations, productivity, revenue, potential for innovation, and product quality are impacted when employees fail to receive training to renew their skills to emerging organizational requirements.

Though they are trained in TVET fields, women often wind up employed in the public sector, education, and social work: Evolving socio-cultural values often affect the education and career decisions of women. For example, while there has been a notable rise in the enrollment of women in TVET institutions, 80% of the Qatari female labor force is employed in less technical sectors such as public administration and defense, education, and human health and social work. According to the most recent Qatar labor market survey, not a single Qatari woman is employed in an occupation in the international standard classification of occupations statistical groupings for craft and related trades workers and plant and machine operators and assemblers. The clustering of women in select occupations in government, education, and social work reflects a similar phenomenon as found in other Arab countries where individuals who have received specialized academic or TVET training ultimately wind up employed in positions not related to their original training.

In Qatar, cultural factors strongly influence women’s choice of employment. A focus group convened by the General Secretariat for Development Planning and Ministry of Labor revealed that females prefer employment in the government sector, rather than privately-owned companies, since it is “conducive to their cultural requirements.” In addition to socio-cultural values which shape career choice, the high comparative wages paid to females in the public sector and the sectors dominated by government owned and mixed companies over other technically focused sectors is a significant economic deterrent to female entry into more diverse disciplines. According to Qatar’s recent labor market survey, the average monthly salary for women employed in technical occupations (craft and related trades workers and plant and machine operators and assemblers) is from 2,369 QR to 2,750 QR. This amounts to 14% of what a woman would earn employed in a professional role in the public sector. Average monthly wages outside the public sector are comparatively unattractive relative to the high average monthly wage of 19,523 QR paid to women in the public sector. The extractive sector is the only sector in Qatar which offers a monthly wage that exceeds the average in the public sector.

Significant Education and Labor Market Reforms are Required

Strong TVET education systems have been shown to help nations prepare youth for future careers in technical industries associated with knowledge-based economies. High rates of participation by Qatari females in the labor market will be essential if Qatar is to reach its ambitious economic development goals. However, to ensure that females not only receive the training they need but also transition to technical fields, a number of barriers that serve as disincentives to TVET enrollment and women’s work in technical fields must be addressed.

A priority for Qatar should be to offer options for TVET education for females at the secondary level. The fact that females start their exposure to TVET later than males has many important repercussions – not only depriving females from exposure to TVET options but also subtly implying that TVET education is worse than academic education or is not appropriate for females. The effect is likely to discourage females from pursuing TVET education at the post-secondary level. Expanded institutional offerings should be accompanied by a rethinking of sponsorship and scholarship schemes which serve to perpetuate existing stereotypes about the roles that women should perform and the types of education they pursue.

To bolster the number of women in TVET education and jobs, Qatar must continue to emphasize technical vocational education and training for women while making technical careers more competitive in terms of pay and stature. Labor market policies must be pursued that reduce the pay and benefit differentials between the public sector and private sector employment in technical industries. An initial step in achieving this is identifying economic sectors with the potential to generate high skill, high wage employment opportunities for women. Given Qatar’s strong economic performance in the finance, aviation, and hospitality industries, these might be areas to expand TVET options.

A long-term public awareness campaign that highlights women who are successful in TVET fields and focuses on the value of TVET to Qatar’s development will also be essential. Young women need more female role models in technical fields and must be exposed to technical industries through structured programs and partnerships. Employers which require technically trained staff must also make a concerted effort to entice more women into technical sectors of the labor market by engaging universities and training institutes, providing directed career guidance, and offering scholarships. On-the-job training and mentorships can further enhance the role of women in technical careers in Qatar.

The Role of Women Beyond 2022

While some have suggested that the awarding of the World Cup 2022 to Qatar has brought clarity as to economic sectors that could provide employment opportunities over the next several years, Qatar must continue to retain its focus on 2030 and beyond. While the World Cup will create economic and job opportunities over the next decade, it remains unclear if these positions will be of interest to women and whether the employment opportunities created will be in line with Qatar’s focus on creating innovative, skilled industries associated with knowledge economies. As the recent Olympics held in London showed, many of the jobs created by large showcase events are concentrated in the construction and retail sectors which currently do not offer sufficient wages to attract Qataris. Qatar will have to think hard about whether gearing the education and training system to accommodate large scale events like the World Cup may ultimately stray from the vision articulated in the Qatar National Vision 2030 and National Development Strategy which emphasizes the development of innovation-driven, knowledge-based industries which can sustain Qatar’s rapid economic growth into the future.

This week at TVET Global Innovators Conference in Doha, Qatar Tahseen Consulting and UNESCO announced plans to conduct a report on female participation in technical and vocational education and training in Qatar. In the video below, Tahseen Consulting’s CEO Walid Aradi explains the relevance of the study to TVET reform and realizing economic development aspirations in Qatar.

Tahseen Consulting’s Related Work on Qatar

Value for Money in Arab Educational Reform: Monitoring and Evaluation K-12 Education Reform in Qatar

Towards a Qatar Oil and Gas Sector National Workforce Development Initiative

Knowledge-based economic development has become closely intertwined with national competitiveness and economic policies that support integration and diversification, innovation, technology development, entrepreneurship, workforce skills development and job creation, adoption of high performance organizational structures, and ICT infrastructure development (Planning 2010). Through the engagement of international organizations such as the World Bank and the UN with the region, the concept of knowledge-based economy has taken on an expanded meaning in the Arab region. The Arabized concept of knowledge economy is also fused with other development challenges not part of the Western conception of the term such as large-scale education and training system reform; environmental sustainability; social and cultural development including issues surrounding identity, language, equality; political participation and reform; and healthcare reform (Program 2002; Program 2003; United Nations Educational 2005; Bank 2007; Foundation and Program 2009).

 

Influenced by the gradual adoption of knowledge-economy as a widespread regional policy goal beginning in the early 1990s and the work of international organizations, in January 2007 the Planning Council of Qatar and Qatar Foundation sought the assistance of the World Bank to perform a knowledge economy assessment and articulate a vision for Qatar. At the time, a background analysis for the World Bank report observed the following education and training issues “few links and formal relationships between the training institutions and the needs of the labor market; education and training institutions are highly separated with little coordination; no linkages between training and job career prospect; and most of the training centers lack human and financial resources. In general, there is a lack of an overall strategy for workforce development in Qatar (Institute 2007).”

 

The Qatar National Vision 2030 advances a broad vision for the education and training system: “Qatar aims to build a modern world-class educational system that provides students with a first-rate education, comparable to that offered anywhere in the world.” The National Development Strategy 2011-2016 describes the underlying thrust of the education and training system in both economic and socio-cultural outcomes. In terms of fostering economic development towards a diversified, knowledge-based economy, innovation in science, medicine, and industry is emphasized along with upgrading and deepening the education, knowledge, and skills of Qataris for increased private sector employment participation. In terms of catalyzing socio-cultural outcomes, the skills formation system is linked with outcomes  such as religious, moral, and ethical values, national identity, preservation of traditions and cultural heritage, a well-rounded and engaged citizenry, a cohesive, participatory society, improved decisions about health, marriage, parenting,  and social responsibility (Planning 2011).

 

Primarily receiving technical assistance for institutional capacity development as aid from international organizations, the Qatari government, through the Supreme Education Council, serves as the regulator, provider, and funder of the education and training system while playing a strong role in defining industrial economic development policy. Thus, the Qatari government is in a unique position of coordinating education and training outputs with economic development needs without relying on external financial assistance. In this respect, the Qatar National Vision sets three system-wide education and training policy objectives to achieve world-class standards:

Education and Training System Policy Principles in Qatar

These policy principles are at the heart of the advanced performance management framework for K-12 education system reform that aligns ministry and sector strategies with the development goals established by the Qatar National Development Strategy 2011-2016 and the Qatar National Vision 2030

By defining specific policy areas for education reform, a performance management framework was devised to track delivery upon goals set out in the National Development Strategy at two levels to ensure that  empirically supported socio-cultural and economic benefits attributable to education and training are achieved:

  • Policy-based key performance indicators measure system performance relative to the achievement of the overarching policy aims of quality, equity, and portability;
  • Output KPIs measure the effectiveness of the education and training system in terms of achieving academic, social, and economic outcomes which are precursors to the future development of Qatar.

Tahseen Consulting’s Related Work

Through the engagement of international organizations with the region, the concept of knowledge-based economy has taken on an expanded meaning in the Arab region. The Arabized concept of knowledge economy is fused with other development challenges not part of the Western conception of the term such as large-scale education and training system reform (UNDP, 2002; UNDP, 2003; UNESCO, 2005; World Bank 2007; MbRAM Foundation and UNDP, 2009). Influenced by the gradual adoption of knowledge economy as a widespread regional policy goal beginning in the early 1990s, in January 2007 the Planning Council of Qatar and Qatar Foundation sought the assistance of the World Bank to perform a knowledge economy assessment and articulate a national vision. At the time, a background analysis for the World Bank report observed the following education and training issues: “few links and formal relationships between the training institutions and the needs of the labor market; education and training institutions are highly separated with little coordination; no linkages between training and job career prospects; and most of the training centers lack human and financial resources. In general, there is a lack of an overall strategy for workforce development in Qatar (World Bank Institute, 2007).”

To address these challenges, the Qatar National Development Strategy 2011-2016 (Qatar General Secretariat for Development Planning, 2011) sets three system-wide education and training policy objectives: quality, equity and inclusiveness, and portability and mobility. Primarily receiving technical assistance for institutional capacity development as aid from international organizations, the Qatari government, through the Supreme Education Council, serves as the regulator, provider, and funder of the education and training system while playing a strong role in defining industrial economic development policy. In line with the Paris Declaration, Qatar is currently in the process of establishing results-oriented reporting and performance assessment frameworks to more effectively manage increased resources devoted to the education and training sector. These frameworks are aimed at using information on results to improve implementation of reforms, policy making, increase transparency, and assess progress against national and sectoral development strategies.

By defining specific policy areas for education reform, we devised a performance management framework to track delivery upon goals set out in the National Development Strategy at two levels to ensure that empirically supported socio-cultural and economic benefits attributable to education and training are achieved:

• Policy-based key performance indicators measure system performance relative to the achievement of the overarching policy aims of quality, equity, and portability;

• Output KPIs measure the effectiveness of the education and training system in terms of achieving academic, social, and economic outcomes which are precursors to the future development of Qatar.