Posts Tagged ‘female labor market participation’

Beginning in the late Nineties, Qatar launched a comprehensive set of education reforms to more effectively align its education and training system with its macroeconomic policies aimed at advancing towards a knowledge-based economy. However, technical vocational education and training (TVET) has not been a significant focus of educational reforms.

Though the need for more effective TVET systems emerged as early as the 1940s when Qatar started producing and exporting oil, the government has primarily focused on supply side, expansionary educational policies aimed at establishing new TVET institutions. However, many of the TVET governance institutions that prevent underinvestment in skills, provide adequate regulation, and coordinate stakeholders are still in a nascent state.

TVET policies in Qatar have largely proceeded without a clear conceptualization of the scope of TVET and which types of institutions should be included in the TVET policy and which ones should be excluded. TVET faces an identity crisis in which people are unhappy with the name, the image, and reputation. It remains unclear how technological TVET can be, what fields it encompasses, and whether TVET leads to jobs which are considered acceptable to Qataris.

In the presentation below, we highlight some of the issues Qatar will need to address to develop a national TVET strategy which overcomes existing gender issues.

Underrepresentation of GCC women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields is increasingly a problem that compromises regional economic and social development. Although national education and employment policies have been directed at increasing female interest and participation in technical and vocational fields, women continue to shun STEM sectors. Why, with so much effort directed at attracting women to STEM fields, are the results so dismal and what should be done?

GCC nations face similar challenges in transitioning towards knowledge-based economies — they remain heavily dependent on natural resources, employ large numbers of nationals in the public sector, and rely on foreign workers to fill the private sector. While demand for technically trained labor in the GCC countries is very high, traditionally much of this demand has been filled by foreign labor. However, further public sector employment generation aimed at absorbing growing national populations may strain national budgets by increasing already high government wage bills. For this reason, GCC governments are gradually restructuring national technical vocational education and training (TVET) systems in concert with introducing labor market reforms to reorient national employment towards the private sector and in-demand STEM fields associated with knowledge-based economic development ambitions.

In the GCC, TVET currently faces an identity crisis in which people are unhappy with the name, the image, and reputation. GCC nations are particularly struggling with increasing the enrollment and employment of women in STEM fields. While some GCC countries, such as Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, have viewed TVET as a key element of educational policy for many years, other GCC nations have only relatively recently focused their attention on improving TVET systems. Educational reforms have been accompanied by social and labor market policies aimed at directing women towards emerging STEM fields. However, the success of females in accessing higher education, in which females now make up the majority of enrollments in nearly all of the GCC countries, to some degree has masked the emerging regional challenge of attracting women to STEM programs and their subsequent labor market entry into emerging high skill, knowledge-intensive, STEM fields.

View Our Other Work on Technical Vocational Education and Training in the Arab World

Promoting Entrepreneurship in the Arab World: The Need for Tailored National Approaches

Tahseen Consulting’s Work on Female Participation in Technical and Vocational Education and Employment Featured in Qatar Today

Why Aren’t There More Female Entrepreneurs in the GCC?

Given their high levels of education, women are a substantial underutilized resource for GCC economies. Several international studies have shown increased female labor market participation has a large, positive, and significant impact on economic growth and social development. Although labor force participation amongst GCC females remains amongst the lowest in the world, there is potential to attract highly educated females into the labor market and high growth STEM fields in particular. A challenge in the GCC countries is that many of the emerging industries which have fueled recent growth and job creation, including construction, wholesale and retail trade, transportation, financial services, petrochemicals, and the extractive sectors, are fields which are dominated by males and which tend to employ large quantities of low wage, foreign workers.

CountryLabor Market Participation
Male Nationals (%)
Labor Market Participation
Female Nationals (%)
Bahrain68%33%
Kuwait 61%30%
Oman*45%20%
Qatar 65%35%
Saudi Arabia 63%16%
United Arab Emirates58%20%
OECD Average69%51%
Female labor market participation rates in the GCC significantly lag the OECD average and, in some cases, are amongst the lowest in the world
Source: National Statistical Agencies of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE
Notes: * Based on working population age 20 to 60 with the remaining participation rates based on the working age population age 15 to 65.

In recognition of the potentially powerful addition that women can play in regional economies, GCC governments have set ambitious goals to expand the number of women enrolled in TVET programs and working in STEM fields. However, women are still much less likely to study STEM fields, and, when they enter employment, they tend to be concentrated in fields that are inconsistent with national economic ambitions for transitioning to diversified, knowledge economies. While much previous research that has focused on gender-based inequalities in education in the GCC has examined why men are less likely to continue on to higher education, there is significantly less research that has examined why females in GCC nations tend to shun STEM education and employment.

Why So Few? Barriers to Engaging GCC Women in STEM Education

Cultural ideas about what is appropriate work for women specifically limit opportunities to study STEM fields. In many GCC countries, women need support from family members to pursue higher education or work outside the home. Women are often directed by family members away from pursuing STEM programs, despite their interest or aptitude, due to ingrained cultural ideas about appropriate educational pathways and career tracks for women. While female role models can provide aspirational examples for women’s education and employment decisions that might challenge existing cultural ideas, there are very few female role models presently who received TVET training and are employed in a STEM industry who might positively influence females. The lack of female faculty available to teach TVET programs in the GCC may also implicitly send the message that STEM fields are either not appropriate career choices for females or that women are less successful in STEM fields. A growing body of evidence also suggests that educational curricula in the GCC may contain implicit biases that portray women in administrative rather than STEM positions which socializes women to occupy different social and economic roles than males from very young ages.

The secondary level is a crucial transitional period for young people in the GCC – whether they will transition to the labor market after graduation or continue on to university is largely decided by what they study in secondary school and how they perform. However, educational policies that sort students based on grades tend to reinforce existing notions that academic tracks are superior to vocational pathways. By not offering secondary TVET options to girls, the structure of academic pathways in GCC countries also contribute to female preferences for non-STEM programs. For this reason, female enrollment in secondary TVET has remained significantly lower than males across the GCC. While career guidance is one informational resource that can help girls consider broader education and employment paths, career guidance is often focused on coaching students towards non-STEM higher education fields. Higher admissions standards for academic programs than some technical fields feed perceptions that particular academic tracks carry higher social prestige. While GCC nations have launched ambitious sponsorship and scholarship programs, many of these programs perpetuate gender-biased labor market segmentation by incenting women to study fields such as clerical and administrative work over STEM fields.

At the higher education level, enrollment statistics show that women tend to pursue concentrations such as nursing, education, arts, and social sciences, rather than technical or scientific fields. While socio-cultural factors and parental influence play a role in students’ choices of major, GCC higher education policies can serve to limit female students’ options for study. Particularly in emerging STEM fields, many GCC nations suffer from inexplicit licensing and accreditation standards and unclear quality procedures. While formal channels of licensing and accreditation are generally covered by national ministries of education, nationwide quality bodies, or specific TVET regulatory bodies, regulatory gaps exist in TVET systems. For instance, in many countries, private institutions are not adequately regulated. The lack of clear standards for licensing and accreditation undermines public quality perceptions of TVET providers. To improve quality and align curricular standards to international norms, many countries have instituted accreditation reforms. However, the number of institutions involved in licensing and accreditation can often lead to overlapping authorities and complex regulatory environments that confuse potential students and parents regarding the value and employment opportunities associated with particular qualifications.

KuwaitUAEQatar
Major% of total female students enrolled% of total female students enrolled% of total female students enrolled
Arts and Sciences28%19%48%
Education27%3%4%
Business and Economics15%11%23%
Law9%3%6%
Food and Agriculture0%3%Data not available
Engineering17%7%15%
Medicine and Health Sciences3%2%4%
Information TechnologyData not available2%Data not available
Female public university enrollment patterns in the GCC show strong concentration of females in arts and sciences, education, and business rather than STEM fields critical to knowledge-based economic development
Source: National Statistical Agencies of Kuwait, UAE, and Qatar
Note: Data is presented only for countries which have publicly available statistics

What Holds Women Back? Barriers to GCC Female Employment in STEM Fields

A significant body of regional research has found that socio-cultural beliefs about female employment encourage women to pursue professional and administrative positions in the public sector. Jobs that do not fit this cultural ideal are more likely to be deemed inappropriate for females. Broadly speaking, professional and administrative positions in the public sector are considered more prestigious in Gulf countries, which means that women interested in STEM fields will likely be exposed to negative social pressure to avoid such professions in favor of more culturally acceptable roles in the public sector and state owned companies. In addition to generally being confined to employment in only a handful of select industries, women are also much less likely to work in senior management positions. In some GCC countries, occupational segregation puts specific demands on employers which are often unwilling or unable to provide separate facilities for females. Due to the prevalence of small-and-medium sized business in the GCC, many employers are lack the resources to provide the facilities required by occupational segregation. In this way, gender segregation can perpetuate labor market segmentation by decreasing the number of jobs available to women in emerging economic sectors.

Women also encounter difficulties finding employment due to structural labor market features which limit the fields they can enter. While the general direction of knowledge-based economic development is articulated in national level strategic documents in many Arab countries, such documents are less precise about the particular occupations within knowledge-based fields that may emerge as economies develop. In many cases, the rapidly emerging GCC industrial structure and economic planning limitations result in lack of labor market demand signals that lead to widespread skills shortages and gaps in GCC labor markets. In most GCC countries, the extractive industries remain the major economic sector. However, the extractive industries tend to be heavily male-dominated fields that attract few women. High percentages of foreign males in the private sector labor force also encourage women to seek more culturally and socially acceptable employment in fields with more women or those in gender-segregated environments.

The attractiveness of public sector employment is a primary factor behind women’s unwillingness to work in STEM fields. Jobs in the public sector are relatively well paid, not physically demanding, and provide substantial benefits over the private sector. The high concentration of females in the public sector makes it more difficult for females to enter the private sector and more diverse STEM fields because high levels of clustering reinforce social views that the public sector is the only appropriate employer for females. Emerging research also suggest that women face much more significant challenges securing employment than men which makes them seek the job security of the public sector. Women have more difficulty finding their first job in the GCC, and studies have shown that women generally use very few non-government facilitated methods for finding employment. The difficulty women experience transitioning to the labor market and between jobs make them more likely to become discouraged and voluntarily remove themselves from the labor market or retain jobs in the public sector.

Country% of Female Nationals Employed in the Public Sector% of Female Nationals Employed in the Private Sector
Bahrain50%50%
Kuwait*94%6%
Oman65%35%
Qatar88%12%
Saudi Arabia63%37%
UAE89%11%
Across the GCC, females are generally employed in the public sector
Sources: National Statistical Agencies of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and UAE
Note: * Some studies suggests that in 2010 79% of females now work in the public sector. However, a definitive publicly available data source is not available

Personal status laws, although recently reformed in many of the GCC countries, also restrict women from entering particular employment fields. The importance of fathers and husbands making decisions about their daughters’ and wives’ choices to work out of the home means that some women who might be interested in pursuing a career in a STEM field may be prevented from doing so. Female employment in particular fields can also be limited by vague language in national labor laws. While all GCC nations have undertaken nationalization policies to increase the number of national workers in the labor force and specifically in crucial private sector professions, nationalization initiatives have historically targeted male dominated industries such as oil and gas. While nationalization initiatives have the potential to open up new avenues to female employment, they may not have the intended effect if nationalization efforts are not focused on industries which women are likely to enter.

What GCC Countries Can Do

Progress towards increasing female enrollment and employment in STEM fields will need to target a variety of national education and training system, labor markets, and individual challenges.

Overcoming Policy, Planning, and Systemic Challenges to Equitable TVET Provision

In order to supply qualitatively and quantitatively sufficient levels of technically trained females to the labor market, national education and training systems must provide females with accessible technical pathways that are responsive to evolving socio-cultural norms concerning female labor market participation and employment in technical fields. Females’ access to STEM fields in many of the GCC countries is limited in part due to few providers who specifically serve women and government and institutional decisions to offer select programs to women that fail to fully cover STEM fields of importance to emerging knowledge-based industries in the region. Across the GCC, some STEM options are not open to women, including many advanced engineering sub-disciplines critical to regional development. Addressing the supply of TVET programs means not only increasing the number of options available to women but also ensuring that institutions are female-friendly and offer high quality programs attractive to females.

Increasing Female Enrollment in STEM Programs

While many females from GCC countries are studying in TVET programs at the post-secondary level, several studies across the region have found that some STEM fields are viewed as a second-best option. To increase the number of females studying in STEM programs at the secondary and tertiary levels, GCC countries will have to institute reforms that increase demand for technical and vocational education by addressing socio-cultural barriers to enrollment. Addressing these barriers will involve interventions and policies that positively influence persistent beliefs about the kinds of students who attend TVET and the post-graduation opportunities available to them. Reforms must center on information and reputation management that increase women’s access to information about STEM education, encourages women to enter STEM fields, and improves the perceived status of STEM education.

Encouraging Women to Enter Employment in STEM Fields

Ease of entry, effective labor market and social policies, and female-friendly workplaces are critical to attracting outgoing technically trained females from national education and training systems to employment in STEM fields. As with the decision to enroll in technical programs, encouraging women to work in technical fields requires incentivizing and providing information to women to motivate particular labor market choices. Barriers to female employment are varied and include such issues as family responsibilities, female preferences for certain work environments, and expectations about what types of jobs offer the best pay and benefits. Effective reforms will likely involve structural labor market policies that make technical positions and private sector employment more desirable options.

Increasing Employer Demand for Technically Trained Females

Increasing female employment rates in technical fields will require increasing employers’ demand for female labor in a way that overcomes existing preferences for public sector employment. The focus must be on encouraging private sector companies to hire females. Companies must be convinced of the desirability of hiring females despite some employers in the region viewing females as more expensive and requiring special accommodations. In several GCC countries policy experiments with training and wage subsidy programs have proven effective in incentivizing companies to hire more women.

Dear Readers,

As 2013 draws to a close, here is a look at our most popular content of the year. We hope you are enjoying Tahseen Consulting’s Research and Insights, and we look forward to continuing to engage with you in 2014.

Best wishes for a happy and productive new year,

The Tahseen Consulting Team

Tahseen Consulting’s Walid Aradi Interviewed on Dubai TV’s Money Map

Tahseen Consulting’s CEO Walid Aradi appeared on Dubai TV’s Money Map to discuss the role of entrepreneurship policy in economic development and meeting the region’s youth unemployment challenge.
 
Women Wanted: Attracting Women to Technical Fields in Qatar

In this article, we discuss the difficulties Qatar faces in terms of promoting technical and vocational education amongst females. Over the past several decades Qatar has dramatically reformed its education and training system to align it with macroeconomic policies aimed at advancing towards a knowledge-based economy. However, technical vocational education and training (TVET) has not been a significant focus of educational reform.

   
Promoting Entrepreneurship in the Arab World: The Need for Tailored National Approaches

Understanding the determinants of self-employment and how they might differ across the region is critical to meet the region’s youth unemployment challenge

   
An Arab Open Government Maturity Model for Social Media Engagement

While embrace of social media as a component of open government initiatives is still in its infancy in the Arab World, there is much expectation that public sector social media use will have a transformative impact on citizen participation in government, policy formation, and the way public sector entities conduct business. However, existing evolutionary models of e-government and open government maturity based on the experiences of Western democracies offer little support to Arab entities that operate in an institutional environment characterized by much different governance traditions.

   
Arab Knowledge Economies Require More Effective Skills Formation Systems to Generate High Skill, High Wage Employment

As Arab countries pursue knowledge-based economic development, national skills formation policies require significant rethinking says this report from Tahseen Consulting in collaboration with the Sheikh Saud bin Saqr Al Qasimi Foundation for Policy Research.

   
Skills Shortages and Gaps May Limit the UAE’s Islamic Finance Hub ambitions

Based on our projections that a another $87 to $124 billion could potentially enter the Islamic banking system in the UAE by 2015, approximately 7,800 new jobs will be created at Islamic banks in the UAE assuming current asset concentration ratios remain similar.

   
Arab Corporate Social Responsibility Rapid Appraisal Diagnostic

Given the scattered use of Global Reporting Initiative standards in the region, Tahseen Consulting has developed an Arab Corporate Social Responsibility Rapid Appraisal Diagnostic based on analysis of a representative sample of 128 regional CSR initiatives and previous literature.

   
The Arab World’s Most Generous Philanthropists Could Mobilize $24 billion by Signing the Giving Pledge

If the Arab World’s billionaires signed a pledge to donate their wealth to philanthropy, an estimated $24 billion would be mobilized.

   
Arab Students Studying Abroad Contribute $77 Billion to Other Economies

Arab students studying abroad have generated $77 billion in income for other countries over the last decade without even considering other economic externalities.

   
Only 11% of Arab Educators Regularly Use Educational Technologies in their Classrooms a Tahseen Consulting Study Finds

Due to the region’s youthful demographics and widespread use of mobile technologies, Arab educators face the challenge of meeting new expectations of learners who want engaging, interactive, and individualized learning experiences.

 

The Arab World generally has low rates of female entrepreneurship. Region-wide, women own 13% of firms, which is lower than most other regions including Europe, Central Asia, East Asia, and Latin America (Chamlou, 2008). One reason for low official rates of female entrepreneurship in the region is that a considerable amount of female entrepreneurship is conducted informally through home-based businesses which are not captured by official statistics. Traditional beliefs about the role of women and familial obligations remain a barrier to increased levels of entrepreneurship (Aradi, Buckner, & Schwalje, Forthcoming).

In the GCC, evidence suggests that female entrepreneurship rates are substantially lower than male entrepreneurship rates. In Qatar, for example, female owned businesses constitute only 3.5% of all businesses (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2009). Among respondents to a Global Entrepreneurship Monitoring report on entrepreneurship in the UAE, 11.8% of male respondents were early stage entrepreneurs while only 7.6% of women were early stage entrepreneurs. However, male respondents in the UAE were much more likely to be established entrepreneurs – at 7%, while only 0.9% of females were established entrepreneurs (El-Sokari, Vanhorne, Zeng-Yuhuang, & Alawad, 2013). In Saudi Arabia, approximately 12% of males are engaged in early stage entrepreneurship while only 6% of women are engaged in early stage entrepreneurial activities (Global Entrepreneurship Research Association, 2013). Such findings suggest males in the GCC have generally higher rates of entrepreneurship and are more likely to own businesses which persist beyond the startup stage.

View Our Other Work on Entrepreneurship and Technical Vocational Education and Training in the Arab World

Promoting Entrepreneurship in the Arab World: The Need for Tailored National Approaches

Tahseen Consulting’s Work on Female Participation in Technical and Vocational Education and Employment Featured in Qatar Today

Women entrepreneurs face a number of obstacles which serve to depress female entrepreneurship rates. A study of female entrepreneurship in the region found that while networks of support have been successful in some countries such as Tunisia, Morocco, and Lebanon, such networks have been less successful in other Arab countries. The study finds that “businesswomen networks are in their infancy and face several obstacles such as attracting funding, in the face of donor priorities for provision of microfinance, and growing the network” (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2009, p. 5). Nonetheless, networks that support female businesswomen, such as the Bahrain Businesswomen Society, Business and Professional Women – Kuwait, Omani Women’s Association, Dubai Business Women’s Council, and the Qatar Women Business Forum, have been quite active over the past few years promoting female participation in business with events and development programs (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2009). Support from such organizations may prove an effective strategy for encouraging more women to become entrepreneurs and to overcome cultural resistance to female entrepreneurship. Across the GCC, initiatives aimed at supporting women entrepreneurs are much more likely to take the form of professional associations or committees housed within chambers of commerce. Qatar and Saudi Arabia appear to be the only countries in the GCC with dedicated business centers and incubators that exclusively serve women (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2013).

Females in many GCC nations also face unique obstacles to obtain funding to start their businesses. In addition to the lack of seed and venture funding that affects the majority of countries in the Arab region, research indicates that females in Qatar require guarantors in order to obtain business loans from banks. In Saudi Arabia, surveys and interviews with female entrepreneurs found that 82.2% of registered businesswomen rely on personal savings to fund their businesses and do not seek external funding (Ahmad, 2011). These female entrepreneurs also stated that they “believe that many social and regulatory interactions are more challenging for them because of their gender,” and, as a result, they relied substantially on male relatives to complete business transactions (p. 612).

In the UAE, a survey with entrepreneurs who had closed their businesses found that the majority of female entrepreneurs who closed their business did so because of personal reasons. This contrasts sharply to males, the majority of whom stated that they closed their business because they were not profitable (El-Sokari et al., 2013). It is not clear from the report what personal reasons are causing women to close their businesses, but the report calls for more research to understand why women are more likely to discontinue their business for non-business related matters.

Low rates of female entrepreneurship should not be thought to imply that women are not interested in entrepreneurship. According to interviews in Qatar, entrepreneurship is an appealing career choice for women because it allows them to have flexibility over their schedule and can often be pursued in addition to full-time public sector work. High levels of domestic staff employed in Gulf homes also means that women often have time for entrepreneurship. Interviews suggested that many female entrepreneurs in Qatar maintain their day job in the public sector while they pursue entrepreneurial endeavors to ensure a steady income and retain rights to a pension. However, it is not well understood what circumstances must be present in order for such entrepreneurs to make the step to pursue their entrepreneurial endeavors full time (Aradi et al., Forthcoming).

A recent survey of Gulf residents also found that women have many of the characteristics needed to be successful entrepreneurs, but they are less oriented towards entrepreneurship. The survey found that women in GCC countries are generally as likely as men to report being optimistic, profit-oriented, and persistent (Bugshan, 2012) ). Nonetheless, women in GCC countries are significantly less likely to say that they have access to mentors who could offer advice about managing a business. Figure 13 shows that the gender gap is substantial in some countries, at 15% in the UAE and 19% in Bahrain. This study suggests that the needs of male and female entrepreneurs differ slightly, and one role for regional entrepreneurship initiatives is to link females with business networks and possible mentors.

Emerging Support Systems for Female Entrepreneurship

Many GCC nations have recently developed entrepreneurship education programs to develop young people’s interests and capabilities in entrepreneurship. Increasingly, these programs focus on women either explicitly or implicitly due to program design. Although the UAE offers no specific programs that target the needs of female entrepreneurs, women entrepreneurship is being supported through the Sougha initiative which was founded by the Khalifa Fund for Enterprise Development “with the aim to create socio-economic opportunities for Emirati artisans and preserve the Emirati heritage by providing the needed support to achieve social good” (El-Sokari et al., 2013, p. 23). Because the focus of the program is handicrafts, participants tend to be women. Sougha has resulted in sales over $1 million and provided income to 148 Emirati families (El-Sokari et al., 2013). Similarly, in Saudi Arabia, the government “offers 3,000 Saudi Riyals a month for women to start new businesses” (Dubai Women Establishment, 2009, p. 40).

In 2006, Oman’s new Vision for Education was launched which included the specific objective of developing students’ entrepreneurial skills. One of the programs launched under the new vision, SANAD, was established to help “job seekers among citizens with opportunities to gain their living and to support self-employment projects and develop small businesses” (Ministry of Manpower, 2013). The program includes training on business skills and also allows would-be entrepreneurs to submit proposals for small start-up loans. As of 2010, the program had supported over 28,000 Omani youth with start-up funds and had provided at least 7,000 Omanis technical and vocational training (Ministry of Manpower, 2013). However, no public data is available on the percentage of beneficiaries who are female or whether the program has led to female firm creation and increased employment. Prior research in non-GCC Arab nations has found that entrepreneurship and labor market programs often tend to “lack the necessary mix of design features that make programs effective” (Angel-Urdinola, Semlali, & Brodmann, 2010, p. 1).

Despite widespread support for entrepreneurship training and assistance programs in the GCC, very little data on the participation or success of women has been collected. Programs such as SANAD offer crucial support for entrepreneurship, but, without an explicit engagement with women’s communities, it is likely that women are not fully benefiting from such initiatives. As of now, SANAD does not offer any training programs specifically for females nor does it appear to track the number of women trainees, projects supported by women, or the percent of women beneficiaries. The example of SANAD from Oman is indicative of a widespread issue across the region concerning the infrequent use of performance monitoring and evaluation of public sector training and active labor market programs. Across the region, more data should be disaggregated by gender and participants tracked over time to understand who is benefiting and how female entrepreneurs’ proposals and businesses fare compared to those of men. This level of data collection would allow policymakers to more effectively target trainings to the specific needs of women entrepreneurs.

Based on the scarcity of initiatives which specifically target aspiring female entrepreneurs, it appears that more entrepreneurship education and training for women is needed in the GCC. While most GCC nations have supported entrepreneurship centers to improve the environment for entrepreneurship including providing funding and training, reducing bureaucracy, and establishing business incubators very few of these centers specifically cater to women’s needs. Moreover, without a critical presence of other women, females who desire to be entrepreneurs may not feel comfortable in such centers. There are few entrepreneurship centers specifically targeted to the distinct types of businesses women may found or designed to support their distinct needs. One example that is potentially replicable in the GCC is the Roudha Center in Qatar which is a business incubator specifically focused on training and enabling female entrepreneurs.

Due to the high number of females who exit the labor market in their thirties, one potential population segment for entrepreneurship training is college educated women who have exited the labor market after child birth and want to open a business to have flexibility in their working hours. Another area of focus may be female secondary school leavers and high school graduates who could benefit from entrepreneurship training to supplement their incomes. Female students are also a potential training beneficiary group that is often overlooked. According to interviews in Qatar, entrepreneurship training is rarely offered in K-12 schools due to lack of an approved curriculum. Rather than complementing existing curricula, females are exposed to entrepreneurship much later in their school or have to seek out such training at specialized institutions outside the formal education system (Aradi et al., Forthcoming). In the UAE, the Khalifa Fund for Enterprise Development has initiated two types of training programs in both government and private schools to “create a dynamic entrepreneurial culture”(Khalifa Fund for Enterprise Development, 2013). However, it is unclear how many students actually benefit and what the long-term outcomes of the program are.

Prior interviews suggest that, in GCC countries, entrepreneurship policies and educational policies are not necessarily aligned and are infrequently viewed as complimentary under national TVET policies. For example, policy makers and institutional administrators in Qatar mentioned the need to integrate entrepreneurship more effectively into the education system from an early age. Study participants also pointed to a need for career guidance to accommodate entrepreneurship so that it might be possible for students to differentiate between choices after secondary schooling like starting a business, joining the armed forces, seeking a job immediately, attending a TVET program, or continuing their studies at the higher education level (Aradi et al., Forthcoming).

References

Ahmad, S. (2011). Businesswomen in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Characteristic, Growth Patterns and Progression in a Regional Context. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, 30(7), 610-614.

Angel-Urdinola, D., Semlali, A., & Brodmann, S. (2010). Non-Public Provision of Active Labor Market Programs in Arab-Mediterranean Countries: An Inventory of Youth Programs.  Washington, DC: World Bank.

Aradi, W., Buckner, E., & Schwalje, W. (Forthcoming). Female Access to Technical Vocational Education and Training and Labor Market Outcomes in Qatar.  Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

Bugshan, F. (2012). Lack of Mentors May Hinder Women’s Entrepreneurship in GCC. Washington, DC: Gallup.

Chamlou, N. (2008). The Environment for Women’s Entrepreneurship in the Middle East and North Africa Region.  Washington, DC: World Bank.

Dubai Women Establishment. (2009). Arab Women Leadership Outlook 2009-2011.  Dubai: Dubai Women Establishment.

El-Sokari, H., Vanhorne, C., Zeng-Yuhuang, & Alawad, M. (2013). Entrepreneurship – An Emirati Perspective.  Abu Dhabi: Zayed University.

Global Entrepreneurship Research Association. (2013). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Key Indicators.  Retrieved December 1, from Global Entrepreneurship Research Association http://www.gemconsortium.org/key-indicators

Khalifa Fund for Enterprise Development. (2013). Khalifa Fund in Schools.   Retrieved November 27, 2013, from http://www.khalifafund.ae/En/BuildYoungEntrepreneurs/Pages/KhalifaFundinSchools.aspx

Ministry of Manpower. (2013). Sanad: An Overview.   Retrieved November 27, 2013, from www.manpower.gov.om/en/sanad_home.asp

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. (2009). Implementation of the 2007 Declaration on Fostering Women’s Entrepreneurship in the MENA Region.  Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. (2013). Directory of Initiatives Supporting Women Entrepreneurs in the Middle East and North Africa.   Retrieved November 27, 2013, from http://www.oecd.org/mena/investment/menawbfdirectory.htm

Qatar Today featured Tahseen Consulting’s research on the difficulties Qatar faces in terms of promoting technical and vocational education amongst females. We have included the original article below.

Women Wanted: Attracting Women to Technical Fields in Qatar

Over the past several decades Qatar has dramatically reformed its education and training system to align it with macroeconomic policies aimed at advancing towards a knowledge-based economy. However, technical vocational education and training (TVET) has not been a significant focus of educational reform. Though the need for a technically trained labor force was recognized by policy makers in Qatar as early as the 1940s when Qatar began exporting oil, dedicated TVET institutions began to emerge only in the late 1990s with establishment of several postsecondary institutions, two secondary institutions for boys, government-run training academies, and the emergence of a private training market.

Despite the proliferation of TVET institutions, many of the governance institutions that provide regulation and coordinate policy and institutional stakeholders are still in a nascent state. TVET policies in Qatar have largely proceeded without a clear conceptualization of what fields it encompasses and whether TVET leads to jobs which are considered acceptable to Qataris. Lack of a clear definition of what constitutes TVET and overcoming negative stereotypes related to TVET in Qatar are key challenges to policy formation. TVET faces an identity crisis in which people are unhappy with the name, the image, and reputation.

The Missing Half of the TVET Debate: Female Participation in TVET and Employment in Technical Fields

While prior research has established that Qatari females attend higher education at much higher rates than males and has explored reasons why men fail to continue on to higher education, very few studies have explored why Qatari females pursue academic education over TVET. There is also a lack of research concerning the labor market decisions of Qatari females and how highly technical, knowledge-intensive fields expected to emerge as a result of Qatar’s knowledge–based economic development will shape future education and employment decisions of females.

According to United Nations statistics, 73% of all students attending higher education programs in Qatar are women, second only to Bahrain in the Gulf Cooperation Council. However, only 38% of the students pursuing TVET education in Qatar are women despite emerging employment opportunities in technical fields. Qatar has one of the highest female labor market participation rates in the Arab World. Because a large number of women attend academic higher education and enter the labor market, many people view the lack of female enrollment and employment in technical fields as a low priority issue. However, high female employment concentrations in select public sector fields is inconsistent with the country’s economic ambitions to grow technology and innovation-driven industries as Qatar transitions to a knowledge economy. As Qatar prepares to host the World Cup in 2022 and continues to diversify its economy beyond the extractive industries, it must ensure that its education and training system is able to evolve to meet its economic ambitions, particularly with regards to inclusion of females in high skill, high wage technical fields which are expected to emerge as Qatar transitions to a knowledge-based economy.

Females Face Significant Challenges and Barriers to Entering Technical Work

A strong commitment was made to TVET reform and female employment in the Qatar National Vision 2030, National Development Strategy 2011 – 2016, and Education and Training Sector Strategy in order to realize Qatar’s economic development ambitions. However, several gender issues related to TVET participation and labor market outcomes for women in Qatar deserve attention:

Though improving, female enrollment in TVET is comparably low: Despite Qatar’s significant gains in reforming higher education, several institutional gaps still exist, such as a lack of secondary TVET schools for women. This lack of secondary technical schools for women stands at odds with data released by the Qatar Statistics Authority which show that Qatari women contribute significantly to emerging technical sectors of the Qatari economy such as ICT, utilities provision, oil and gas, and technical research. The large number of female students who pursue an academic higher education pathway in Qatar is heavily influenced by the absence of secondary TVET institutions for women, lack of early career guidance, and few experiential opportunities for girls to be exposed to technical fields at a young age. While notable increases towards gender parity in post-secondary TVET have been observed recently, there is still room for improvement and for rethinking how girls can be exposed to technical educational tracks earlier in their schooling.

There is also a strong economic rationale for women considering technical education and employment. Research from the Qatar General Secretariat for Development Planning shows that private rates of return for short, technically focused diploma studies exceed those for higher education. This means that, on average, women who pursue technical diplomas make more in terms of average lifetime salaries than women who pursue academic tracks at the higher education level.

Women receive less on the job training opportunities: Over the past decade, the number of training institutions which provide training privately and in the workplace in Qatar has grown dramatically. This is due to the emergence of a private training market as well as several government and mixed companies establishing internal training units. While lack of policies concerning licensing and quality control of Qatar’s private training institutions has been highlighted as a high priority issue, a potentially bigger issue of concern is that data from the Qatar Statistics Authority show women receive substantially less on the job training than men once they are employed. As more women enter the labor market in Qatar and work for longer periods before leaving the labor force, low levels of training for women could potentially serve as a bottleneck that limits the overall effectiveness of organizations in Qatar. Several studies show operations, productivity, revenue, potential for innovation, and product quality are impacted when employees fail to receive training to renew their skills to emerging organizational requirements.

Though they are trained in TVET fields, women often wind up employed in the public sector, education, and social work: Evolving socio-cultural values often affect the education and career decisions of women. For example, while there has been a notable rise in the enrollment of women in TVET institutions, 80% of the Qatari female labor force is employed in less technical sectors such as public administration and defense, education, and human health and social work. According to the most recent Qatar labor market survey, not a single Qatari woman is employed in an occupation in the international standard classification of occupations statistical groupings for craft and related trades workers and plant and machine operators and assemblers. The clustering of women in select occupations in government, education, and social work reflects a similar phenomenon as found in other Arab countries where individuals who have received specialized academic or TVET training ultimately wind up employed in positions not related to their original training.

In Qatar, cultural factors strongly influence women’s choice of employment. A focus group convened by the General Secretariat for Development Planning and Ministry of Labor revealed that females prefer employment in the government sector, rather than privately-owned companies, since it is “conducive to their cultural requirements.” In addition to socio-cultural values which shape career choice, the high comparative wages paid to females in the public sector and the sectors dominated by government owned and mixed companies over other technically focused sectors is a significant economic deterrent to female entry into more diverse disciplines. According to Qatar’s recent labor market survey, the average monthly salary for women employed in technical occupations (craft and related trades workers and plant and machine operators and assemblers) is from 2,369 QR to 2,750 QR. This amounts to 14% of what a woman would earn employed in a professional role in the public sector. Average monthly wages outside the public sector are comparatively unattractive relative to the high average monthly wage of 19,523 QR paid to women in the public sector. The extractive sector is the only sector in Qatar which offers a monthly wage that exceeds the average in the public sector.

Significant Education and Labor Market Reforms are Required

Strong TVET education systems have been shown to help nations prepare youth for future careers in technical industries associated with knowledge-based economies. High rates of participation by Qatari females in the labor market will be essential if Qatar is to reach its ambitious economic development goals. However, to ensure that females not only receive the training they need but also transition to technical fields, a number of barriers that serve as disincentives to TVET enrollment and women’s work in technical fields must be addressed.

A priority for Qatar should be to offer options for TVET education for females at the secondary level. The fact that females start their exposure to TVET later than males has many important repercussions – not only depriving females from exposure to TVET options but also subtly implying that TVET education is worse than academic education or is not appropriate for females. The effect is likely to discourage females from pursuing TVET education at the post-secondary level. Expanded institutional offerings should be accompanied by a rethinking of sponsorship and scholarship schemes which serve to perpetuate existing stereotypes about the roles that women should perform and the types of education they pursue.

To bolster the number of women in TVET education and jobs, Qatar must continue to emphasize technical vocational education and training for women while making technical careers more competitive in terms of pay and stature. Labor market policies must be pursued that reduce the pay and benefit differentials between the public sector and private sector employment in technical industries. An initial step in achieving this is identifying economic sectors with the potential to generate high skill, high wage employment opportunities for women. Given Qatar’s strong economic performance in the finance, aviation, and hospitality industries, these might be areas to expand TVET options.

A long-term public awareness campaign that highlights women who are successful in TVET fields and focuses on the value of TVET to Qatar’s development will also be essential. Young women need more female role models in technical fields and must be exposed to technical industries through structured programs and partnerships. Employers which require technically trained staff must also make a concerted effort to entice more women into technical sectors of the labor market by engaging universities and training institutes, providing directed career guidance, and offering scholarships. On-the-job training and mentorships can further enhance the role of women in technical careers in Qatar.

The Role of Women Beyond 2022

While some have suggested that the awarding of the World Cup 2022 to Qatar has brought clarity as to economic sectors that could provide employment opportunities over the next several years, Qatar must continue to retain its focus on 2030 and beyond. While the World Cup will create economic and job opportunities over the next decade, it remains unclear if these positions will be of interest to women and whether the employment opportunities created will be in line with Qatar’s focus on creating innovative, skilled industries associated with knowledge economies. As the recent Olympics held in London showed, many of the jobs created by large showcase events are concentrated in the construction and retail sectors which currently do not offer sufficient wages to attract Qataris. Qatar will have to think hard about whether gearing the education and training system to accommodate large scale events like the World Cup may ultimately stray from the vision articulated in the Qatar National Vision 2030 and National Development Strategy which emphasizes the development of innovation-driven, knowledge-based industries which can sustain Qatar’s rapid economic growth into the future.

This week at TVET Global Innovators Conference in Doha, Qatar Tahseen Consulting and UNESCO announced plans to conduct a report on female participation in technical and vocational education and training in Qatar. In the video below, Tahseen Consulting’s CEO Walid Aradi explains the relevance of the study to TVET reform and realizing economic development aspirations in Qatar.

Tahseen Consulting’s Related Work on Qatar

Value for Money in Arab Educational Reform: Monitoring and Evaluation K-12 Education Reform in Qatar

Towards a Qatar Oil and Gas Sector National Workforce Development Initiative

We recently looked at female labor market participation across the region, and discovered some interesting statistics. Qatar and the UAE, for example, are converging quickly upon the female labor market participation rates in the OECD.