Share on FacebookShare on Google+Tweet about this on TwitterShare on LinkedInEmail this to someone

GCC leaders must adjust policies to move beyond low impact forms of technologically-driven citizen engagement that do not address public demands for increased accountability, improved performance, and participation in decision making

While the use of technology is a common denominator between Arab open data initiatives and those in other countries, leadership, social, cultural, and institutional factors have negatively influenced the effectiveness of open data initiatives in the GCC. According to a new Tahseen Consulting report, most GCC open data initiatives are severely lacking in comparison to open data programs in OECD countries.

The report outlines a comprehensive framework and best practices that Arab governments can use to improve open data initiatives and bring them into alignment with good practice from OECD countries. Any information such as transit schedules, hospital locations, school enrollment data, birth statistics, traffic data, or weather trends might qualify as an open government initiative. However, by focusing on low priority government activities, GCC open data initiatives rarely provide additional information that is not already available via traditional media or institutional websites.

View a Summary of the Report’s Findings

Is Open Data Leading to Better Government in the GCC?

While the embrace of open government to complement public sector service provision is still in its infancy in the GCC, there is much expectation that open data will have a transformative impact on citizen participation, policy formation, and the way public sector entities conduct business. Relative to OECD countries, most GCC governments focus on national data portals rather than regional and city initiatives, have not enacted right to information laws, fail to engage civil society and academia in efforts, and lack education and training courses for developing more effective open data programs, the report says.

Drawing on examples from OECD countries, Tahseen Consulting’s report Is Open Data Leading to Better Government in the GCC? Identifies several policy, implementation, and data improvements that GCC governments can undertake to make the most of regional open government and data initiatives.

“There are many examples of open government and data best practices from the OECD countries that need to be applied more effectively in the GCC,” said Wes Schwalje, Chief Operating Officer of Tahseen Consulting and author of the report. “Use of technology is not a substitute for deeper reform towards transparency, accountability, and cooperation. Current open data initiatives must go beyond releasing data on non-sensitive political topics towards the release of data which involves the public in a participatory dialogue that can shape decision making, policies, and public service delivery.”

How GCC Open Data Initiatives Compare to OECD Benchmarks

Although several GCC countries have invested heavily in open government and data programs and establishing e-government authorities, Tahseen Consulting’s research finds that GCC government open data programs may not be adequately meeting citizen needs. GCC governments must adapt to new citizen expectations for participation and engagement, coproduction of government services, crowdsourcing solutions to societal issues, and increased transparency and accountability.

View Our Other Work on Open Government and Data in the Arab World

An Arab Open Government Maturity Model for Social Media Engagement

GCC governments must respond to evolving citizen expectations by showing clear senior level commitment to open government and data programs, establishing federal implementation guidelines, and ensuring sufficient resources. “GCC governments must become much more specific in establishing guidelines and data standards for open government and data initiatives,” said Walid Aradi, Chief Executive Officer of Tahseen Consulting. “Most federal guidelines in the GCC remain at a general level and only outline basic principles without specifying how government entities should implement open government and data programs and what types of data should be released.”

Tahseen Consulting has developed an Open Government and Data Diagnostic Tool to help GCC governments adopt more effective practices to make the most of open government and data initiatives. Tahseen Consulting’s diagnostic tool provides a comparative framework that enables entities to determine specific organizational changes that need to be made in order to reach higher stages of open government and data maturity and compare their organization’s maturity level to other entities in the region.

Insights to Help GCC Governments Succeed With Open Government and Data Initiatives in Response to Increased Citizen Expectations

Lack of guidance on how to implement open government and data good practices and regional governance traditions have led to several public sector entities introducing politically low impact programs that fail to enhance transparency, citizen participation in decision making, and collaboration in public service delivery. “Technology often solidifies existing institutional practices rather than changing long standing organizational behaviors,” said Schwalje. “Bringing Arab open government and data initiatives in line with the spirit of programs in OECD countries will require reforms at the national level as well as substantial organizational changes at many entities.”

Tahseen Consulting’s research identifies several ways in which GCC governments can align open government and data programs with similar initiatives in OECD countries.

Enact Right to Information Laws. Many Arab countries do not have right-to-information laws, don’t permit citizens to request data, and have no mechanisms via which to handle citizen requests for data. In several countries, right to Information laws will need to be passed to overcome a prevailing culture of secrecy that limits citizen access to information.

Enact Personal Data Protection Laws. The principle of a right to privacy of personal information is codified in some Arab constitutions and contained in laws that require consent for collection and processing of personal data However, very few countries have federal laws that protect personal information. Many of the data privacy policies in the region have broad clauses related to taking measures to prevent use and disclosure of information but do not specify particular methods of compliance. Updated personal data protection laws are required to reduce citizen concerns about how their personal data is used.

Increase Civil Society Engagement. There is little evidence which suggests that civil society or information technology professional groups are being actively engaged by governments in forming open government and data strategies, identifying data requirements, or in increasing citizen use of open data. Open data initiatives are generally designed to broadcast data rather than create a genuine dialogue about what data might be required by the community. There is a significant role that civil society can play in defining the types of data citizens might find useful and in analyzing publicly available data.

Establish Regional and City Initiatives. The majority of entities with open government and data initiatives are federal ministries, authorities, or agencies. More emphasis on creating regional and city initiatives is required to ensure local needs are being met.

Increase Academic Participation. There is very little evidence that the academic community and academic institutions publish open data as a part of fulfilling their research mandates. For example, grant guidelines for receiving funding from national research funds rarely contain stipulations to publicize data which could be useful to other researchers. An institutional research culture which supports sharing of data must be instilled to promote higher impact research.

Improve the Education and Training System. At the higher education level, many public and private universities offer computer and information science degrees which address concepts related to open government and data. While degree programs cover technological subjects, many programs fail to sufficiently provide more extensive training on areas such as data science, visualization, legal issues related to open data, and open data entrepreneurship.

For more on Tahseen Consulting’s work on open data in the Arab World and other findings in the new report, please visit http://www.tahseen.ae/r&iarabopendata.html.

Share on FacebookShare on Google+Tweet about this on TwitterShare on LinkedInEmail this to someone
Share on FacebookShare on Google+Tweet about this on TwitterShare on LinkedInEmail this to someone

Tahseen Consulting’s research on labor market requirements in the UAE’s Islamic finance sector was cited in the New York Times’ article Dubai Seeks to Become Islamic Economic Hub.

Last year we projected that another $87 to $124 billion could potentially enter the Islamic banking system in the UAE by 2015 which will create approximately 7,800 new jobs at Islamic banks in the UAE. By 2015, the UAE’s Islamic financial services sector will likely double in size from approximately 10,000 employees currently to 20,000.

You can view the original blog post here

Tahseen Consulting’s Research on the UAE’s Islamic Finance Workforce Featured in the New York Times

Tahseen Consulting’s research on labor market requirements in the UAE’s Islamic finance sector was cited again in the New York Times’ article Dubai Seeks to Become Islamic Economic Hub.

Share on FacebookShare on Google+Tweet about this on TwitterShare on LinkedInEmail this to someone
Share on FacebookShare on Google+Tweet about this on TwitterShare on LinkedInEmail this to someone

In this Tahseen Consulting Webinar we host Alisyn Henneck, Enrollment and Marketing Manager for Language and Professional Programs at the Monterey Institute, who offers her thoughts on intensive English as a second language programs as a stepping stone to getting into the college or university of your dreams. We also discuss ESL programs for professional development.

Find out about our Admissions and Scholarship Support Services >>

You can view the webinar below.

Share on FacebookShare on Google+Tweet about this on TwitterShare on LinkedInEmail this to someone
Share on FacebookShare on Google+Tweet about this on TwitterShare on LinkedInEmail this to someone

For Arab students, navigating the MBA admissions process can be an anxious time. Competition amongst international students for US graduate admissions has also reached an all-time high. This means that the pressure to submit a compelling application is more important than ever.

In this Tahseen Consulting Webinar we host Jason Garner, Associate Director of MBA and Graduate Admissions, George Washington University School of Business, who offers his thoughts on what you need to know before applying, what the admissions team looks for in a candidate, and what separates the George Washington University School of Business from other top MBA programs.

Find out about our Admissions and Scholarship Support Services >>

You can view the webinar below.

Share on FacebookShare on Google+Tweet about this on TwitterShare on LinkedInEmail this to someone
Share on FacebookShare on Google+Tweet about this on TwitterShare on LinkedInEmail this to someone

Tahseen Consulting’s research on labor market requirements in the UAE’s Islamic finance sector was cited again in the Gulf News’ article Islamic Finance Talent Gap to Reach 8,000 Plus.

Last year we projected that another $87 to $124 billion could potentially enter the Islamic banking system in the UAE by 2015 which will create approximately 7,800 new jobs at Islamic banks in the UAE. By 2015, the UAE’s Islamic financial services sector will likely double in size from approximately 10,000 employees currently to 20,000.

You can view the original blog post here

Tahseen Consulting’s work on identifying skills shortages in the Islamic finance sector in the UAE has been frequently cited by the media and in the run up to the Global Islamic Economy Summit

Tahseen Consulting’s work on identifying skills shortages in the Islamic finance sector in the UAE has been frequently cited by the media and in the run up to the Global Islamic Economy Summit

Share on FacebookShare on Google+Tweet about this on TwitterShare on LinkedInEmail this to someone
Share on FacebookShare on Google+Tweet about this on TwitterShare on LinkedInEmail this to someone

While some Arab institutions have robust tools for ascertaining the effectiveness of programming and post-graduation employment of students, the majority of institutions have informal processes that are insufficient for measuring success and adapting services

Tahseen Consulting, one of the Arab Region’s fastest growing education and public policy consulting firms, hosted a workshop on strengthening the monitoring and evaluation capabilities of national employment and university career centers. The one-day workshop gathered national employment and university career center managers to improve the ability of institutions to internally review and adapt career programming to better meet the needs of Arab youth and employers.

Representatives from 20 leading institutions advocating more effective methods of evaluating student participation in career services, employer participation, and student career outcomes discussed cooperating to address regional youth employment. The goal of the workshop was to enhance the capabilities of participating institutions to implement formal monitoring and evaluation processes.

“Many institutions in Arab countries which serve youth and the unemployed do not provide sufficient career counseling to help beneficiaries make informed decisions about their education and employment paths. In the region, career counseling has proceeded as an unregulated field,” said Walid Aradi, Chief Executive Officer of Tahseen Consulting. “Career counselors need to understand the dynamics of the labor market and labor market trends to successfully advise students. This will require both better trained career counselors as well as institutional adoption of more rigorous monitoring and evaluation approaches.”

The role of career counseling in the Arab region has evolved significantly in recent years. However, Tahseen Consulting’s research has found that career guidance in Arab institutions is often not distinguished from psychological counseling, is occasionally provided by teachers alongside teaching duties, and is primarily focused on college admissions rather than career guidance. At the high school level, career counselors are critical in helping students discover their interests and workplace values, research potential careers, and outline the necessary steps to pursuing certain careers. In universities, career centers help students make contacts with potential employers and access experiential training opportunities that lead to employment. Across the region, national employment centers are vital to enabling the unemployed to take ownership of their future through their own efforts.

“Based on international experience in OECD countries, all secondary and post-secondary institutions should have career guidance services to help Arab youth access information and explore career options,” said Wes Schwalje, Chief Operating Officer of Tahseen Consulting. “Across the region, career counselors often lack detailed information on labor market forecasts to suggest emerging career tracks which are in line with economic growth and government development plans.”

The workshop addressed five key topics related to monitoring and evaluating national employment and university career centers:

The Role of Monitoring and Evaluation in Employment and Career Centers. The workshop brought together experts to discuss how monitoring and evaluation can allow institutions to manage programs more effectively, promote institutional learning, communicate impact, and build credibility with employers.

How Employment and Career Centers Can Help Youth Overcome Typical Employment Challenges: In recent years, research on defining particular labor market issues that confront Arab youth has increased. This research allows national employment and university career centers to adopt more tailored approaches to address youth unemployment challenges in the region.

The Role of National Employment Centers and Career Advisory in Supporting Economic Development: Providing accessible information on educational requirements and career pathways can track students into in-demand fields associated with national economic development ambitions. Good quality information about opportunities for scholarships and career options can also help change attitudes towards private sector employment and increase the image of particular industries outside the public sector.

Defining Appropriate Indicators to Assess Services and Outcomes: Employment and career center administrators must move beyond assessments that focus exclusively on student placement information for marketing and PR purposes to more formally and rigorously assess the quality of service provision.

Data Collection Instruments for Institutional Learning: Improved quantitative and qualitative approaches can help national employment and university career centers better understand how their activities affect employment outcomes and employer engagement.

A presentation on the main topics addressed in the workshop is available at:
http://www.tahseen.ae/r&imonitoringcareercenters.html#header

Share on FacebookShare on Google+Tweet about this on TwitterShare on LinkedInEmail this to someone
Share on FacebookShare on Google+Tweet about this on TwitterShare on LinkedInEmail this to someone

In late 2013 in our whitepaper An Arab Open Government Maturity Model for Social Media Engagement, Tahseen Consulting wrote about the increasing use of social media by Arab governments. Based on an analysis of Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube accounts of 28 public sector entities in Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates, we found that most social media activity by Arab governments wasn’t adding to more transparency or citizen participation in the public sector.

This week on their People, Spaces, Deliberation Blog, The World Bank’s Communications for Governance and Accountability Program cited our research on how governments can use social media to engage with young citizens more effectively.

You can read Tahseen Consulting’s An Arab Open Government Maturity Model for Social Media Engagement here

The World Bank’s article Look Who Has a Megaphone… which cites our research is available here

 An Arab Open Government Maturity Model for Social Media Engagement

The principles of open government may challenge Arab public sector institutions to embrace governance ideals, expand citizen interactions, and adopt operational practices which may not be manifest in their current offline functioning or necessarily demanded by citizens.

Share on FacebookShare on Google+Tweet about this on TwitterShare on LinkedInEmail this to someone
Share on FacebookShare on Google+Tweet about this on TwitterShare on LinkedInEmail this to someone

Pre-college or summer bridge programs offered by colleges and universities, like Stevens Institute of Technology, help facilitate a smooth transition from high school to college. Students who attend pre-college programs receive academic assistance, career counseling, faculty mentoring, and exposure to a supportive academic and social environment that can help enhance their success in college.

Find out about our Admissions and Scholarship Support Services >>

 View our webinar on how pre-college programs can help Arab high school students prepare for careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields.

Share on FacebookShare on Google+Tweet about this on TwitterShare on LinkedInEmail this to someone
Share on FacebookShare on Google+Tweet about this on TwitterShare on LinkedInEmail this to someone

Underrepresentation of GCC women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields is increasingly a problem that compromises regional economic and social development. Although national education and employment policies have been directed at increasing female interest and participation in technical and vocational fields, women continue to shun STEM sectors. Why, with so much effort directed at attracting women to STEM fields, are the results so dismal and what should be done?

GCC nations face similar challenges in transitioning towards knowledge-based economies — they remain heavily dependent on natural resources, employ large numbers of nationals in the public sector, and rely on foreign workers to fill the private sector. While demand for technically trained labor in the GCC countries is very high, traditionally much of this demand has been filled by foreign labor. However, further public sector employment generation aimed at absorbing growing national populations may strain national budgets by increasing already high government wage bills. For this reason, GCC governments are gradually restructuring national technical vocational education and training (TVET) systems in concert with introducing labor market reforms to reorient national employment towards the private sector and in-demand STEM fields associated with knowledge-based economic development ambitions.

In the GCC, TVET currently faces an identity crisis in which people are unhappy with the name, the image, and reputation. GCC nations are particularly struggling with increasing the enrollment and employment of women in STEM fields. While some GCC countries, such as Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, have viewed TVET as a key element of educational policy for many years, other GCC nations have only relatively recently focused their attention on improving TVET systems. Educational reforms have been accompanied by social and labor market policies aimed at directing women towards emerging STEM fields. However, the success of females in accessing higher education, in which females now make up the majority of enrollments in nearly all of the GCC countries, to some degree has masked the emerging regional challenge of attracting women to STEM programs and their subsequent labor market entry into emerging high skill, knowledge-intensive, STEM fields.

View Our Other Work on Technical Vocational Education and Training in the Arab World

Promoting Entrepreneurship in the Arab World: The Need for Tailored National Approaches

Tahseen Consulting’s Work on Female Participation in Technical and Vocational Education and Employment Featured in Qatar Today

Why Aren’t There More Female Entrepreneurs in the GCC?

Given their high levels of education, women are a substantial underutilized resource for GCC economies. Several international studies have shown increased female labor market participation has a large, positive, and significant impact on economic growth and social development. Although labor force participation amongst GCC females remains amongst the lowest in the world, there is potential to attract highly educated females into the labor market and high growth STEM fields in particular. A challenge in the GCC countries is that many of the emerging industries which have fueled recent growth and job creation, including construction, wholesale and retail trade, transportation, financial services, petrochemicals, and the extractive sectors, are fields which are dominated by males and which tend to employ large quantities of low wage, foreign workers.

CountryLabor Market Participation
Male Nationals (%)
Labor Market Participation
Female Nationals (%)
Bahrain68%33%
Kuwait 61%30%
Oman*45%20%
Qatar 65%35%
Saudi Arabia 63%16%
United Arab Emirates58%20%
OECD Average69%51%
Female labor market participation rates in the GCC significantly lag the OECD average and, in some cases, are amongst the lowest in the world
Source: National Statistical Agencies of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE
Notes: * Based on working population age 20 to 60 with the remaining participation rates based on the working age population age 15 to 65.

In recognition of the potentially powerful addition that women can play in regional economies, GCC governments have set ambitious goals to expand the number of women enrolled in TVET programs and working in STEM fields. However, women are still much less likely to study STEM fields, and, when they enter employment, they tend to be concentrated in fields that are inconsistent with national economic ambitions for transitioning to diversified, knowledge economies. While much previous research that has focused on gender-based inequalities in education in the GCC has examined why men are less likely to continue on to higher education, there is significantly less research that has examined why females in GCC nations tend to shun STEM education and employment.

Why So Few? Barriers to Engaging GCC Women in STEM Education

Cultural ideas about what is appropriate work for women specifically limit opportunities to study STEM fields. In many GCC countries, women need support from family members to pursue higher education or work outside the home. Women are often directed by family members away from pursuing STEM programs, despite their interest or aptitude, due to ingrained cultural ideas about appropriate educational pathways and career tracks for women. While female role models can provide aspirational examples for women’s education and employment decisions that might challenge existing cultural ideas, there are very few female role models presently who received TVET training and are employed in a STEM industry who might positively influence females. The lack of female faculty available to teach TVET programs in the GCC may also implicitly send the message that STEM fields are either not appropriate career choices for females or that women are less successful in STEM fields. A growing body of evidence also suggests that educational curricula in the GCC may contain implicit biases that portray women in administrative rather than STEM positions which socializes women to occupy different social and economic roles than males from very young ages.

The secondary level is a crucial transitional period for young people in the GCC – whether they will transition to the labor market after graduation or continue on to university is largely decided by what they study in secondary school and how they perform. However, educational policies that sort students based on grades tend to reinforce existing notions that academic tracks are superior to vocational pathways. By not offering secondary TVET options to girls, the structure of academic pathways in GCC countries also contribute to female preferences for non-STEM programs. For this reason, female enrollment in secondary TVET has remained significantly lower than males across the GCC. While career guidance is one informational resource that can help girls consider broader education and employment paths, career guidance is often focused on coaching students towards non-STEM higher education fields. Higher admissions standards for academic programs than some technical fields feed perceptions that particular academic tracks carry higher social prestige. While GCC nations have launched ambitious sponsorship and scholarship programs, many of these programs perpetuate gender-biased labor market segmentation by incenting women to study fields such as clerical and administrative work over STEM fields.

At the higher education level, enrollment statistics show that women tend to pursue concentrations such as nursing, education, arts, and social sciences, rather than technical or scientific fields. While socio-cultural factors and parental influence play a role in students’ choices of major, GCC higher education policies can serve to limit female students’ options for study. Particularly in emerging STEM fields, many GCC nations suffer from inexplicit licensing and accreditation standards and unclear quality procedures. While formal channels of licensing and accreditation are generally covered by national ministries of education, nationwide quality bodies, or specific TVET regulatory bodies, regulatory gaps exist in TVET systems. For instance, in many countries, private institutions are not adequately regulated. The lack of clear standards for licensing and accreditation undermines public quality perceptions of TVET providers. To improve quality and align curricular standards to international norms, many countries have instituted accreditation reforms. However, the number of institutions involved in licensing and accreditation can often lead to overlapping authorities and complex regulatory environments that confuse potential students and parents regarding the value and employment opportunities associated with particular qualifications.

KuwaitUAEQatar
Major% of total female students enrolled% of total female students enrolled% of total female students enrolled
Arts and Sciences28%19%48%
Education27%3%4%
Business and Economics15%11%23%
Law9%3%6%
Food and Agriculture0%3%Data not available
Engineering17%7%15%
Medicine and Health Sciences3%2%4%
Information TechnologyData not available2%Data not available
Female public university enrollment patterns in the GCC show strong concentration of females in arts and sciences, education, and business rather than STEM fields critical to knowledge-based economic development
Source: National Statistical Agencies of Kuwait, UAE, and Qatar
Note: Data is presented only for countries which have publicly available statistics

What Holds Women Back? Barriers to GCC Female Employment in STEM Fields

A significant body of regional research has found that socio-cultural beliefs about female employment encourage women to pursue professional and administrative positions in the public sector. Jobs that do not fit this cultural ideal are more likely to be deemed inappropriate for females. Broadly speaking, professional and administrative positions in the public sector are considered more prestigious in Gulf countries, which means that women interested in STEM fields will likely be exposed to negative social pressure to avoid such professions in favor of more culturally acceptable roles in the public sector and state owned companies. In addition to generally being confined to employment in only a handful of select industries, women are also much less likely to work in senior management positions. In some GCC countries, occupational segregation puts specific demands on employers which are often unwilling or unable to provide separate facilities for females. Due to the prevalence of small-and-medium sized business in the GCC, many employers are lack the resources to provide the facilities required by occupational segregation. In this way, gender segregation can perpetuate labor market segmentation by decreasing the number of jobs available to women in emerging economic sectors.

Women also encounter difficulties finding employment due to structural labor market features which limit the fields they can enter. While the general direction of knowledge-based economic development is articulated in national level strategic documents in many Arab countries, such documents are less precise about the particular occupations within knowledge-based fields that may emerge as economies develop. In many cases, the rapidly emerging GCC industrial structure and economic planning limitations result in lack of labor market demand signals that lead to widespread skills shortages and gaps in GCC labor markets. In most GCC countries, the extractive industries remain the major economic sector. However, the extractive industries tend to be heavily male-dominated fields that attract few women. High percentages of foreign males in the private sector labor force also encourage women to seek more culturally and socially acceptable employment in fields with more women or those in gender-segregated environments.

The attractiveness of public sector employment is a primary factor behind women’s unwillingness to work in STEM fields. Jobs in the public sector are relatively well paid, not physically demanding, and provide substantial benefits over the private sector. The high concentration of females in the public sector makes it more difficult for females to enter the private sector and more diverse STEM fields because high levels of clustering reinforce social views that the public sector is the only appropriate employer for females. Emerging research also suggest that women face much more significant challenges securing employment than men which makes them seek the job security of the public sector. Women have more difficulty finding their first job in the GCC, and studies have shown that women generally use very few non-government facilitated methods for finding employment. The difficulty women experience transitioning to the labor market and between jobs make them more likely to become discouraged and voluntarily remove themselves from the labor market or retain jobs in the public sector.

Country% of Female Nationals Employed in the Public Sector% of Female Nationals Employed in the Private Sector
Bahrain50%50%
Kuwait*94%6%
Oman65%35%
Qatar88%12%
Saudi Arabia63%37%
UAE89%11%
Across the GCC, females are generally employed in the public sector
Sources: National Statistical Agencies of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and UAE
Note: * Some studies suggests that in 2010 79% of females now work in the public sector. However, a definitive publicly available data source is not available

Personal status laws, although recently reformed in many of the GCC countries, also restrict women from entering particular employment fields. The importance of fathers and husbands making decisions about their daughters’ and wives’ choices to work out of the home means that some women who might be interested in pursuing a career in a STEM field may be prevented from doing so. Female employment in particular fields can also be limited by vague language in national labor laws. While all GCC nations have undertaken nationalization policies to increase the number of national workers in the labor force and specifically in crucial private sector professions, nationalization initiatives have historically targeted male dominated industries such as oil and gas. While nationalization initiatives have the potential to open up new avenues to female employment, they may not have the intended effect if nationalization efforts are not focused on industries which women are likely to enter.

What GCC Countries Can Do

Progress towards increasing female enrollment and employment in STEM fields will need to target a variety of national education and training system, labor markets, and individual challenges.

Overcoming Policy, Planning, and Systemic Challenges to Equitable TVET Provision

In order to supply qualitatively and quantitatively sufficient levels of technically trained females to the labor market, national education and training systems must provide females with accessible technical pathways that are responsive to evolving socio-cultural norms concerning female labor market participation and employment in technical fields. Females’ access to STEM fields in many of the GCC countries is limited in part due to few providers who specifically serve women and government and institutional decisions to offer select programs to women that fail to fully cover STEM fields of importance to emerging knowledge-based industries in the region. Across the GCC, some STEM options are not open to women, including many advanced engineering sub-disciplines critical to regional development. Addressing the supply of TVET programs means not only increasing the number of options available to women but also ensuring that institutions are female-friendly and offer high quality programs attractive to females.

Increasing Female Enrollment in STEM Programs

While many females from GCC countries are studying in TVET programs at the post-secondary level, several studies across the region have found that some STEM fields are viewed as a second-best option. To increase the number of females studying in STEM programs at the secondary and tertiary levels, GCC countries will have to institute reforms that increase demand for technical and vocational education by addressing socio-cultural barriers to enrollment. Addressing these barriers will involve interventions and policies that positively influence persistent beliefs about the kinds of students who attend TVET and the post-graduation opportunities available to them. Reforms must center on information and reputation management that increase women’s access to information about STEM education, encourages women to enter STEM fields, and improves the perceived status of STEM education.

Encouraging Women to Enter Employment in STEM Fields

Ease of entry, effective labor market and social policies, and female-friendly workplaces are critical to attracting outgoing technically trained females from national education and training systems to employment in STEM fields. As with the decision to enroll in technical programs, encouraging women to work in technical fields requires incentivizing and providing information to women to motivate particular labor market choices. Barriers to female employment are varied and include such issues as family responsibilities, female preferences for certain work environments, and expectations about what types of jobs offer the best pay and benefits. Effective reforms will likely involve structural labor market policies that make technical positions and private sector employment more desirable options.

Increasing Employer Demand for Technically Trained Females

Increasing female employment rates in technical fields will require increasing employers’ demand for female labor in a way that overcomes existing preferences for public sector employment. The focus must be on encouraging private sector companies to hire females. Companies must be convinced of the desirability of hiring females despite some employers in the region viewing females as more expensive and requiring special accommodations. In several GCC countries policy experiments with training and wage subsidy programs have proven effective in incentivizing companies to hire more women.

Share on FacebookShare on Google+Tweet about this on TwitterShare on LinkedInEmail this to someone
Share on FacebookShare on Google+Tweet about this on TwitterShare on LinkedInEmail this to someone

The King Abdulaziz Center for World Culture, an initiative of Saudi Aramco, invited Tahseen Consulting’s Wes Schwalje to Saudi Arabia to host a panel on global best practices in the transition to knowledge societies. The panel, which was held at the Global Knowledge Society Forum, featured:

Dr. Hun Joo Park
Executive Director, Korea Development Institute

Dr. Indrajit Banerjee
Director, Knowledge Societies Division, UNESCO

H.E. Professor Dr. Nasser David Khalili
UNESCO Goodwill Ambassador

Share on FacebookShare on Google+Tweet about this on TwitterShare on LinkedInEmail this to someone