Archive for November 2012

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean cites Tahseen Consulting’s research while discussing the impact of workforce skills gaps on small and medium enterprise development in their 2013 Latin American Economic Outlook: SME Policies for Structural Change.

In response to several messages we received regarding the potential of Arab SMEs to meet the region’s youth employment challenge, we decided to also look at the other end of the employment spectrum to determine which entities across the region are the largest employers.

Related Blog Posts

In our post Company Sizes in the Arab World: Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Dominate Arab Economies we found that 92% of businesses in the Arab region are under 200 employees. The concentration of SMEs in Arab economies has a significant on employment creation and potential public sector responses the region’s youth employment challenge.

Below is a list of the Arab region’s largest employers segmented by country and industry gathered from press accounts, regulatory filings, and government sources. In several countries education, health, and defense ministries employ large segments of the population. We also observe much similarity across the region in terms of industries which are large employers (telecom, services, construction, diversified conglomerates, aviation, and financial services). What is less clear, however, is whether these industries have produced high skill and knowledge-content, high wage jobs.

Related Blog Posts

In our blog post Many Arab Countries Are Headed Towards Knowledge-based Economies.. But What are Knowledge-based Industries? we explore how the concept of Knowledge-based industries and economies lacks a clear definition. Defining the size and growth of knowledge-based industries is especially difficult in the Arab region.

In our blog post Knowledge-based Economy and Employment Generation in the Arab World we show that the emergence of knowledge-based industries has not necessarily led to meaning levels of job creation in the region. 

CountryEntitySectorNumber of Employees
Saudi Arabia Ministry of Education Education
418362
Saudi ArabiaMinistry of Defense and Aviation
Defense
106000
Saudi ArabiaMinistry of Health Healthcare
73314
Saudi ArabiaSaudi Aramco
Oil & Gas51000
Saudi ArabiaSaudi Basic Industries Corporation
Chemicals
31000
Saudi ArabiaSaudi Electricity Company
Utilities 28300
Saudi ArabiaSaudi Telecom Company
Telecoms
21190
Saudi ArabiaThe Savola Group
Conglomerate
12500
Saudi ArabiaZamil Group
Conglomerate
10000
Saudi ArabiaAlmarai Co.Food Industries
9505
Saudi ArabiaAl-Rajhi Banking & Investment Company
Financial services
8299
Saudi ArabiaZamil Industrial Investment Co.
Financial services
8200
Saudi ArabiaAbdullah Al Othaim Markets Co.Retail5097
Saudi ArabiaSaudi Public Transport Co.Transport
5065
Saudi ArabiaRiyadh Bank
Financial services
4768
United Arab EmiratesArabtec Construction
Construction
52000
United Arab EmiratesMinistry of Defense
Defense
48800
United Arab EmiratesAl Habtoor Group
Conglomerate
40000
United Arab EmiratesEmirates GroupAviation
30297
United Arab EmiratesDP WorldTransport
30000
United Arab EmiratesAl Jaber Group Conglomerate
25000
United Arab EmiratesMinistry of EducationEducation
24000
United Arab EmiratesAl Ghurair Group
Conglomerate20000
United Arab EmiratesAl Futtaim Group Conglomerate20000
United Arab EmiratesAbu Dhabi National Hotels Company
Hospitality
12000
United Arab EmiratesMajid Al Futtaim Group
Conglomerate
11000
United Arab EmiratesJumeirah Group
Hospitality
11000
United Arab EmiratesEtisalat
Telecoms10083
United Arab EmiratesDepartment of Health & Medical ServicesHealthcare
9422
United Arab EmiratesEmirates NBD
Financial services
8139
United Arab EmiratesMinistry of HealthHealthcare7000
KuwaitAl-Kharafi Group Conglomerate
100000
KuwaitMinistry of Health
Healthcare
36000
KuwaitMinistry of Education
Education
34801
KuwaitAgility
Services
31055
KuwaitKuwait Food Co. - Americana
Food Industries
21522
KuwaitArabian Construction Company
Construction16500
KuwaitAlshaya
Retail16130
KuwaitMinistry of Defense
Defense15500
KuwaitAl-Abraj Holding Co.Services15000
KuwaitZain GroupTelecoms
15000
KuwaitKIPCO
Services8000
KuwaitSultan Center Food Products Co.Food Industries7000
KuwaitNational Cleaning Co.Services6022
KuwaitHeavy Engineering Ind. & Shipbuilding Co.Services5000
KuwaitKuwait & Gulf Link Transport Co.Services5000
KuwaitThe National Industries Group
Conglomerate
4000
KuwaitKout Food Group
Food Industries4000
KuwaitNational Mobile Telecommunications Co.Telecoms2923
KuwaitNational Bank Of Kuwait
Financial services
2921
KuwaitCombined Group Contracting Co.
Construction2831
KuwaitAl Arabi Group Holding Co.Conglomerate2763
KuwaitKuwait Hotels Co.Hospitality2540
KuwaitKuwait Finance HouseFinancial services 2032
KuwaitACICO Industries Co.Construction2000
OmanMinistry of Defense
Defense41700
OmanOmzest Group
Conglomerate
40000
OmanMinistry of Education
Education39993
OmanMinistry of Health
Healthcare
21447
OmanSuhail Bahwan Group
Conglomerate
15000
OmanSaud Bahwan Group
Conglomerate
11000
OmanRenaissance Services Co.Services9000
OmanOman Aviation Services CoServices3360
OmanOman Telecommunications CompanyTelecoms2735
OmanOman National Engineering & Investment Co.Services2630
OmanShanfari Group
Conglomerate2500
OmanBank Muscat
Financial services
2157
OmanSalalah Port Services
Services2079
OmanOman Holding International Co. Financial services 1600
OmanNational Bank Of Oman Ltd.Financial services 1155
BahrainMinistry of Defense
Defense12000
BahrainMinistry of Health
Healthcare
7213
BahrainMinistry of Education
Education5000
BahrainAlmoayyed Group
Conglomerate
5000
BahrainAhmed Mansour Al A'ali Group
Conglomerate5000
BahrainNass CorporationServices
4729
BahrainDadabhai GroupConglomerate3500
BahrainAhli United BankFinancial Services2800
BahrainBahrain Telecommunications Company (Batelco) Telecoms2579
BahrainFakhro Group
Conglomerate1000
QatarSupreme Education Council
Education13000
QatarMinistry of Defense
Defense11800
QatarQatar Shipping Company
Services3518
QatarIndustries Qatar
Conglomerate
3400
QatarAamal Company
Conglomerate3000
QatarQatar Navigation Company
Services2500
QatarMannai Corporation
Services2400
QatarQatar Telecom (Qtel)Telecoms2000
QatarSalam International Investment Co LtdServices2000
QatarQatar Electricity and WaterUtilities1500
QatarQatar National Bank
Financial services1400
QatarQatar National Health Authority
Healthcare1200
QatarBarwa Real Estate Company
Services
1100
QatarQatar National Cement CoServices1050
IraqMinistry of Interior
Civil Affairs
348000
IraqMinistry of Defense
Defense
270000
IraqMinistry of Education
Education 120000
IraqMinistry of Higher Education and Scientific Research
Education 100,000
IraqMinistry of Health
Healthcare100000
IraqMinistry of Electricity
Utilities42000
IraqSouth Oil Co
Oil & Gas18000
IraqNorthern Oil Co
Oil & Gas13000
IraqKBR -IraqOil & Gas7000
IraqAl Elaf Group of Companies
Conglomerate5000
IraqFalcon Group
Conglomerate3500
IraqBaghdad Soft Drinks CoFood Industries3400
IraqBahrani Group
Conglomerate3000
IraqZain Iraq
Telecoms3000
IraqIraqi Airways
Aviation
2400
IraqDanube Group
Conglomerate2000
IraqAsiaCell
Telecoms2000
YemenMinistry of Education
Education194443
YemenMinistry of Defense
Defense66000
YemenMinistry of Interior
Civil Affairs
51200
YemenHayel Saeed Anam Group
Conglomerate25000
YemenPublic Electricity Corporation
Utilities15000
YemenSabaFon
Telecoms10000
YemenMinistry of Health
Healthcare7300
YemenPublic Telecommunication Corporation
Telecoms7000
YemenYemen Company for Drug Manufacturing and Trading (Yedco)
Services
5000
YemenYemen Economic Corporation (YECO)
Services5000
EgyptMinistry of Education
Education
1099000
EgyptMinistry of Interior
Civil Affairs
350000
EgyptMinistry of Health
Healthcare215000
EgyptMinistry of Defense
Defense
80000
EgyptTelecom Egypt
Telecoms55000
EgyptOrascom Construction Industries
Construction50000
EgyptKuwait Food Company (Americana) in EgyptFood Industries45000
EgyptOrascom Development
Real estate18000
EgyptOrascom Telecom Holding
Telecoms15000
EgyptMansour Group
Conglomerate11000
MoroccoMinistry of Defense
Defense196300
MoroccoMinistry of Interior
Civil Affairs
93500
MoroccoMinistry of Health
Healthcare
52000
MoroccoGroupe OCP
Chemicals
20000
MoroccoChabbi Group
Conglomerate
18000
MoroccoMaroc Telecom
Telecoms
11000
MoroccoYNNA Holding, Group Miloud Chaabi
Conglomerate
11000
MoroccoONA Group
Conglomerate10000
MoroccoMinistry of National Education
Education
7400
MoroccoLesieur Cristal
Food Industries5000
MoroccoBanque Marocaine du Commerce Exterieur
Financial services4000
MoroccoCompagnie Generale Immobiliere
Real estate
2800
MoroccoAttijariwafa Bank
Financial services
2000
TunisiaMinistry of Education and Training
Education124000
TunisiaMinistry of Health
Healthcare105000
TunisiaPoulina Holding Group
Conglomerate
13000
TunisiaTranscom Worldwide Tunisia
Services11000
TunisiaSatex
Textiles10000
TunisiaCompagnie des Phosphates de Gafsa
Chemicals9000
TunisiaTunisie telecom
Telecoms7500
TunisiaLeoni Tunisie
Services6500
TunisiaTunisair
Aviation5200
TunisiaGroupe ChimiqueTunisien Services4500
TunisiaSystem De Cablerie Automobile De Sousse Services4300
TunisiaEvolServices4000
TunisiaSte des Arts TextilesTextiles3300
TunisiaThe Banque Nationale Agricole
Financial services2700
TunisiaThe Societe Tunisienne de Banques
Financial services2600
TunisiaBanque Internationale Arabe the Tunisie
Financial services2200
LibyaGumhouria Bank
Financial services3500
LibyaGeneral Tobacco Company
Tobacco1500
LibyaTrucks and Bus Co
Services1000
LibyaArab Union Contracting Company
Construction800
LibyaAlmadar
Telecoms550
LibyaCentral Bank of Libya
Financial services300
LibyaAkida Group
Conglomerate195
LibyaLibyan Tractor Company
Services100
AlgeriaMinistry of Education
Education323000
AlgeriaSonatrach
Oil & Gas120000
AlgeriaNaftalOil & Gas30000
AlgeriaAlgerie Telecom
Telecoms27000
AlgeriaAir Algerie
Aviation8800
AlgeriaGiplaitFood Industries
4500
AlgeriaGroupe Saidal
Pharmaceuticals4400
AlgeriaMinistry of Health and Population
Heath care4400
SudanFederal Ministry of Health
Heath care54000
SudanMinistry of Education, Science and Technology
Education 18000
SudanSudan Railways Corporation
Transport13000
SudanChina National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) in Sudan
Oil & Gas11000
SudanKenana Sugar Company
Services6000
SudanDAL Group
Conglomerate4000
SudanSudatel Telecommunications Group Ltd.Telecoms2500
SudanSudan Airways Company
Aviation2000
LebanonSarkis Group International
Conglomerate
7000
LebanonMinistry of Health
Healthcare5400
LebanonZakhem Group
Conglomerate5000
LebanonOgeroTelecoms
3800
LebanonAverda Group ( Sukkar Engineering Group)
Conglomerate 3,500
LebanonMiddle East Airlines (MEA)
Aviation3000
SyriaMinistry of Defense
Defense319000
SyriaMinistry of Health
Health care63354
SyriaMinistry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources
Oil & Gas47000
SyriaSyrian Telecommunication Establishment
Telecoms25000
SyriaSyrian Petroleum Company
Oil & Gas17500
SyriaGeneral Establishment of Syrian Railways
Transport12000
SyriaSyrian Arab Airlines
Aviation5300
SyriaCham Holding
Conglomerate4000
SyriaJoud Company
Conglomerate3000
SyriaGeneral Company for Electrical and Communication Works
Utilities2500
SyriaMTN Syria
Telecoms2100
SyriaAlfadel Group
Conglomerate2000
SyriaSyriaTel
Telecoms1900
SyriaND Group

Conglomerate1450
SyriaByblos Bank
Financial services1150
SyriaSyrian Modern Cables
Services1050
JordanMinistry of Health
Healthcare24000
JordanArab Bank
Financial services6500
JordanThe Royal Jordanian Airlines Company
Aviation4300
JordanThe Royal Jordanian Airlines Company
Metals and mining4300
JordanJordan Telecom Group /Orange
Telecoms4000
JordanHikma Pharmaceuticals
Pharmaceuticals2700
JordanArab Potash Company
Services2000
JordanHousing Bank for Trade & Finance
Financial services1900
PalestineMinistry of Education
Education48000
PalestinePalestine Development & Investment Ltd. (PADICO)
Conglomerate35000
PalestinePalestinian Security Forces
Defense30000
PalestineMinistry of Health
Health care13000
PalestinePaltel
Telecoms12000
SomaliaSecurity Forces of Somaliland
Defense7000
SomaliaAmal Group of Companies (Amal Express)
Conglomerate1000
SomaliaSOMTEL
Telecoms1000
SomaliaTelecom Somalia
Telecoms750
SomaliaSomafone
Telecoms150
MauritaniaSociété Nationale Industrielle et Minière--SNIM
Conglomerate804
MauritaniaSOMAGAZ
Oil & Gas400
MauritaniaAir Mauritanie
Aviation300
DjiboutiDaallo Airlines
Aviation 250
DjiboutiDjibouti National Army
Defense11000

In the Arab World, a society characterized by skilled, flexible, and innovative individuals nurtured through quality education, employment, and broadly accessible life-long learning opportunities is seen as a vital precursor to knowledge-based economic development (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Ministry of Economy and Planning, 2010). To varying degrees, Arab countries are faced with similar human capital challenges that serve as obstacles to knowledge-based economic development:

Low Levels of Workforce Productivity

Across the region, labor productivity is low. Based on GDP per person employed data from 2008, Qatar, the richest Arab nation, is approximately two-thirds as productive as Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, despite the upward trending of oil and gas which forms the majority of Qatar’s domestic product receipts (World Bank, 2010a). Labor productivity data from 1991-2008 show a .7% compound annual growth rate for the Arab World while East Asia and the Pacific grew at 3.97%; Latin America grew at a rate of 1.19%; Sub Saharan Africa grew at 1.46%, and the OECD countries grew at 1.54%.

Preference for Public Sector Employment

Long standing social aspects of career specialization have led to some reluctance to pursue certain professions (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, 1960). The social aspects of career choice has slowed economic integration, led to the substitution of expatriate labor in certain industries, and decreased productivity in low value added industries for which low skill expatriate labor is imported from abroad to perform (Ministry of National Economy of the Sultanate of Oman, 2010). The social preference for public sector jobs has precipitated a crisis in which regional governments are unable to create suitable employment opportunities to absorb the youthful population entering the labor market.

Increasing Female Labor Market Participation

Despite significant gains in educational attainment, female labor market participation is estimated at 22% resulting in high levels of female unemployment (International Labor Organization, 2010). While more women have entered the labor market, many have found employment in part-time work, microenterprises, and the informal economy (Flynn and Oldham, 1999). Rapidly evolving cultural values and changing views on familial obligations continue to be influential in labor market participation and obtaining higher levels of education (Miles, 2002).

Poor Match Between Workforce Skills and Those Demanded by Public and Private Sector Employers

In surveying the public sector, Al-Yahya (2008) finds evidence of a low match between the skills of public sector employees and the work roles they perform particularly at lower administrative levels. Al-Yahya also finds evidence that formal educational qualifications are frequently not related to current jobs and a high number of public sector employees who believe their current jobs require low levels of their perceived skills and capabilities. Citing deficiencies in soft skills like communication, teamwork, analytical skills, and innovative thinking, a recent survey of the private sector also found that 46% of regional CEOs do not believe that education and training systems in the Arab World prepare students for the workplace (Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Foundation, 2008). These findings are indicative of a vast disconnect between current regional human capital levels and the skills demanded by private sector employers.

Education and Training System Misalignment With the Needs of Knowledge-based Economies

Many Arab countries are unable to meet the needs of all students who want to pursue education because of dramatic increases in student enrollment and insufficient resources (United Nations Development Program, 2002). Though there is a continued long-term trend towards increased budgets for education in the region, meeting the combined demands of increased access, assuring relevance, and improving quality in the face of finite resources is challenging (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, 2010b). Despite positive gains to promote educational opportunity and increased national spending on education, poor educational quality continues to hamper regional human capital development and the ability of Arab countries to compete in the global economy. At the higher education level, the region’s education systems are failing to produce the right quality and mix of human capital needed for knowledge-based development.

Barriers to Entrepreneurship

While some gains have been made in facilitating entrepreneurship in the region as evidenced by the increasing number of new business registrations, the procedures, time, costs, and minimum capital required to start a business remain much higher than OECD countries (Klapper, 2010, World Bank, 2010b). Though some Arab countries provide venture funding for entrepreneurial endeavors, startup and early-stage financing from banks, venture capitalists, and angel investors is very limited in the Arab World due to low liquidity conditions on exit markets. In terms of nurturing businesses, the Arab World has approximately 100 business incubators as compared to 1,600 in the United States to serve rather similar populations (National Business Incubation Association, 2011).

Weak Innovation Systems

R&D spending is significantly lower than in the developed world with very little private sector funding (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, 2010a). Regulatory frameworks do not protect intellectual property leading to low levels of patents and stifling private R&D expenditure. There is weak government policy making in research and innovation in spite of various studies which have shown that critical components necessary for innovation systems, research, market-oriented R&D, and entrepreneurship need to be concurrently fostered and linked in knowledge-based economies (Cooke, 2001, Pietrobelli, 2009). These components include educational systems, institutions conducting basic, applied, and interdisciplinary research, business incubators, funding institutions, and professional societies. Several of the institutions critical to the innovation system are weak in the Arab World (Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Foundation, 2009).

Managing Growth Sustainably

Underpinned by high fertility rates and increased life expectancy, the population of the Arab World nearly tripled to 359 million growing at an average annual rate of over 2% from 1970 to 2010 (Mirkin, 2010). This growth has increased the demand for basic services such as health, education, housing, water, and sewerage systems which has outpaced the growth rate of national income and government revenues (Rischard, 2009). The Arab World is experiencing rapid urbanization which has resulted in increased poverty, inadequate solid waste collection and disposal, toxic and hazardous waste problems, poor or non-existent sanitation facilities, and degradation of urban environment and coastal areas (United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia, 2009). Demographic trends are also having a number of societal implications related to marriage and the family, status of women, and care of older people (Mirkin, 2010).

While employee count, sales, and assets have been used internationally to develop precise definitions of what constitutes a SME, lack of financial data on establishments operating in the Arab countries has resulted in many countries relying primarily on number of employees. In several countries, there is presently no definition of what defines a SME. The data we present below suggests that most firms in the region are under 200 employees. If the EU’s definition of what constitutes a small and medium-sized enterprise is applied (micro firms  <10 employees, small firms 10-49 employees, and medium-sized firms 50 – 250 employees), 92% of firms in the Arab World would be considered as small and medium-sized enterprises with 25% classified as micro businesses, 44% as small businesses, and 23% as medium-sized businesses.

Related Blog Posts

In our post Arab Corporate Social Responsibility Rapid Appraisal Diagnostic we suggest that lack of financial reporting standards in small firms in the region may also serve as a deterrent to social responsibility reporting

In our post How Skills Gaps are Generated by National Education and Skills Formation Systems we discuss how HR practices in small and medium sized firms may perpetuate the skills gap problem in the Arab World

The data presented below are proxied from World Bank firm-level surveys which draw on a representative sample of an economy’s private sector to shed light on a broad range of business environment topics. Enterprise Surveys are answered by business owners and top managers with input from finance and HR staff. The sampling frame for each country is stratified by business activity, firm size, and location and is confined to formal establishments excluding fully government owned firms. The primary focus sectors include manufacturing and service establishments corresponding to ISIC Revision 3.1 codes 15-37, 45, 50-52, 55, 60-64, and 72.

We analyzed data for 6,257 establishments in Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and Yemen.  While the survey coding frames are very similar across countries, some countries made minor localization changes (such as aggregation of or more specificity for certain industries) as well as added additional questions to the standardized questionnaire in some cases, most notably some countries chose to also survey firm with less than 5  employees while others did not. This distribution reflects the high number of small and medium sized businesses that employ a significant percentage of the workforce in the Arab World. Across these countries, we found 72% of firms were from the manufacturing sector, 22% from the services sector, and the remaining 7% from the construction and transport sectors. Within the manufacturing sector, food and beverage, textiles and garments, and other manufacturing (primarily ISIC Rev. 31. codes 20-23, 30, 33-37) were the largest industries surveyed. Within the services sector, other services (primarily ISIC Rev. 3.1 code 50 and other unspecified services), hotels and restaurants, and retail were the largest industries surveyed.

Company SizeAlgeriaEgypt*IraqJordanLebanonMauritania
1-42%NA9%.4%36%36%
5-928%5%40%15%21%40%
10-2433%34%41%26%24%18%
25-4920%10%7%20%12%4%
50-999%8%2%14%4%2%
100-1995%16%1%11%2%0%
200-2492%4%0%2.4%0%0%
250-4991%9%0%5.8%1%0%
500-9990%6%0%4.0%0%0%
1,000+0%8%0%2.0%0%0%
Company SizeMoroccoOman
Palestine
Saudi Arabia
Syria Yemen
1-4NA2%.5%NA3%NA
5-90%21%36.2%0%14%45%
10-2425%29%35.2%8%26%23%
25-4924%25%13.7%27%17%12%
50-9912%19%9.2%28%16%9%
100-19919%3%3.0%19%12%4%
200-2495%0%.7%6%3%2%
250-49911%0%1%8%7%2%
500-9992%0%.2%2%2%2%
1,000+2%0%.2%1%1%1%

Given the lack of an unambiguous definition of what constitutes a skills gap in previous surveys and imperfect measurement proxies, Figure 1 below shows that the present understanding of what causes skills gaps is similarly vague. If the intent of national skills surveys is to devise public policy interventions that might affect the behavior of firms in remediating skills gaps, the precision with which the causes of skills gaps are identified is of critical importance. Of the several skills surveys we reviewed, seven specifically ask respondents to identify the causes of skills gaps. From these surveys, four areas of thematic overlap emerge as potential causes of skills gaps: recruitment difficulties; HR practices related to employee development, motivation, and retention; strategic shifts in response to changing business environments; and transitional stages of employee orientation and integration. This section reflects briefly on these four thematic areas to advance a typology which takes into account the present understanding of the source of skills gaps.

Causes of skills gaps implied by survey questionnaires

We reviewed skills surveys from 14 countries and found an ambiguous definition of what constitutes a skills gap and how they are caused.
Sources: (Campbell, Baldwin et al. 2001; Learning 2004; Development 2006; Learning 2007; Office 2008; Zealand 2008; Shury, Vivian et al. 2009; Education Analytical Services 2010; Shury, Winterbotham et al. 2010)

Recruitment Difficulties: Recruitment difficulties can arise for a number of different reasons such as:  competition from other employers; not enough people are  interested in doing a particular job; long training times to develop skills; limited capacity of training organizations in relevant fields; poor terms and conditions offered for jobs such as unsociable hours, unattractive employment modalities, or low pay; poor prospects of career progression; location in a remote location with poor transportation; attitude, motivation, or personality mismatches etc. The multitude of reasons for recruitment difficulties requires the need to distinguish between situations where there are few people in the labor force who have the required skills, work experience, or qualifications to perform a job (a skills shortage) and situations where there are people in the labor market with the requisite skills, work experience, or qualifications but, due to some reason, are not attracted to a particular job (a recruitment difficulty).

An important consideration, however, is whether skills shortages are a symptom of greater problems involving market and institutional failures in the skills formation system rather than a direct cause of skill gaps. Effective government institutions that prevent underinvestment in skills, provide adequate regulation, and coordinate stakeholders are key elements of effective national skills formation systems. These institutions exist to link economic development with the evolution of education and training systems; ensure qualitative and quantitative supply-demand match between outgoing students and the needs of the labor market; facilitate regular, on-the-job  training provision and  participation in skills formation by the business community; and address policy, informational, or financial sources of individual underinvestment in national workforce skills formation (Schwalje 2011). As governments attempt to influence the technological and industry structure of their countries, the absence or weakness of government mechanisms to coordinate and align skills formation institutions can create a need for skills that cannot be predicted by free market mechanisms which can result in skills shortages.

The effectiveness of formal education and training systems is increasingly measured by production of human capital in the quantity and quality required by the labor market and whether outgoing students meet the expectations of employers (Development 2010). Accessibility to education and training  institutions, quality, and the degree to which education and training systems produce employable students influence the preparation of individuals with the skills, work experience, and qualifications to meet labor market needs.  In this respect, education and training institutions can impact allocative efficiency in labor markets which can result in skills shortages.

Private rates of return explain the motivation of individuals to pursue different levels and types of education to augment natural abilities with skills subsequently sold in the labor market. Individuals engage in an investment optimization process in which they participate in education and training as long as the value stream of future earnings is more than foregone earnings, training, and equipment expenses. However, empirical studies have shown that wage differentials relative to less skilled workers can be affected by sectoral shifts requiring higher skill intensity (Schultz 1975); when expansion of educated labor outpaces expansion in employment (Pritchett 2001); and where technological progress is rapid and government policy is conducive to technological progress and skill intensive development (Rosenzweig 2010). Since the impacts of government industrialization policy may be unknown to individuals, information gaps about the future trajectory of industries and emergent skills needs, the returns to investing in particular skills sets, and projecting the future returns of education and training investments can result in market failure. Skilling investments may also be subject to short-termism in which individuals are unwilling to invest in skills with uncertain and longer-term return horizons. The motivation of the labor force to engage in lifelong learning to ensure continued relevancy of skills may similarly be impacted by return uncertainties. Capital market weaknesses in terms of a lack of funding to finance education and training investments can lead to underinvestment. Externalities and labor market rigidities may also alter the incentives and returns to skilling resulting in sub optimal investment in skills formation. The many factors which can alter the expected return to particular skills or which signal sectoral growth or promise affect individual skilling decisions which may result in skills shortages.

Returning to the proposition that recruitment difficulties due to skills shortages are a symptom of greater problems in the skills formation system, it seems probable that skill shortages can result from market and institutional failures in the governance and institutional quality of skills formation systems, the employability of outgoing students from the education and training system, and  informational or policy-related sources of uncertainty which motivate individual investment in skills development. Market and institutional failures may influence firms to engage in substitution behavior where they hire employees which they know require additional skills to meet firm needs in the face of skills shortages. Similarly, market failures and institutional quality can result in a situation where new entrants to the labor force appear to be qualified but are subsequently found to lack skills. Both of these scenarios can result in skills gaps as firms absorb employees from the external labor market who do not have the required skills, work experience, or qualifications when facing recruitment difficulties attributed to skills shortages.

HR practices related to employee development, motivation, and retention: Firms provide training to increase and maintain workforce skills levels to support core competencies in addition to developing new skills that can form the basis of future firm competencies. The willingness and ability of firms to provide training and development depends on a number of factors. Managerial calculations of the returns to training may be complicated by informational gaps surrounding technology, future skill requirements, and benefits of training (Lall 1999). In situations of market or institutional failure, staff development may require training to retain competitiveness in addition to remediating inadequate pre-employment skills formation. Employee poaching, the tendency of firms to recruit employees with transferrable skills from other firms, and turnover may serve to limit firm-based training since training firms incur the cost of employee training only to lose the employee and resulting benefits of the training to another firm. Depressed levels of training and development due to a variety of factors can lead to skills gaps that erode creation and production of firm competencies jeopardizing the application of workforce skills toward market-oriented business objectives.

As mentioned in the discussion on the competence-based view of the firm, it is not enough for a firm to have a highly skilled workforce to achieve competitive advantage. A firm’s human resources pool must also be motivated to act in the interests of the firm. In England (30%), Scotland (7%), Northern Ireland (19%), and New Zealand (16%) many firms cite employee motivation as a cause of skills gaps (Zealand 2008; Shury, Vivian et al. 2009; Education Analytical Services 2010; Shury, Winterbotham et al. 2010). HR practices are both a way to develop workforce skills as well as to ensure alignment between workforce behavior and firm-level goals. HR practices, through their influence on employee motivation, induce productive employee behavior to apply their skills. Similarly, HR practices can affect employee turnover levels. For example, HR systems which promote employee involvement, participation, training in group problem solving, socializing, high concentrations of skilled employees, and higher average wages have been shown to reduce turnover (Arthur 1994; Delaney and Huselid 1996).

Numerous theories and metatheories of workforce motivation exist which propose various sources of motivation leading to individual behavior. By understanding the sources of motivation, firms can design HR policies to encourage productive employee behavior which enables full deployment of workforce skills. The most commonly researched HR policy areas which impact motivation include rewards (such as compensation and promotional systems); task (aspects of job and task design); management style; and social inducement systems (Leonard, Beauvais et al. 1999). Several studies have found that task complexity and whether a task is considered interesting or not may be more suited to certain types of motivational inducement systems (Gagne and Deci 2005). These findings suggest HR practices require tailoring to specific firm, job, and industry contexts to induce productive employee behavior. The consequence of misalignment of HR practices with sources of workforce motivation can affect employees’ choices regarding the direction, level of effort, and persistence of behavior which can lead to skills gaps.

Strategic shifts in response to changing business environments: The competence-based view of the firm stresses the criticality of consolidating human and other resources into market-oriented competencies that allow firms to adapt to changing environments. The ongoing renewal of competencies has implications on business processes, market positions, and expansion paths (Teece, Pisano et al. 1997). Competency renewal may involve changes in company strategy, goals, markets, business models, products and services, working practices, or technology. Evolving business strategies in response to the competency renewal process may require specialized skills that current employees lack resulting in skills gaps. Similarly, changing job requirements due, for example, to technology adoption or job promotion, might mean that once proficient employees now lack skills to perform new or evolving roles. Increasing and maintaining workforce skills in light of competency building and renewal in response to changing opportunities implies that skills gaps can emerge as firms struggle to respond to internal and external forces that threaten firm competitiveness.

Transitional stages of employee orientation and integration: A large percentage of employers in several countries highlight recent recruitment, post-merger employee integration, and lack of experience as a cause of skills gaps (Development 2006; Zealand 2008; Shury, Vivian et al. 2009; Education Analytical Services 2010; Shury, Winterbotham et al. 2010). However, it is unclear to what extent temporary, transitional phases associated with the beginning of the employee-employer relationship can be considered a cause of skills gaps since presumably such transitory skill gaps are likely to decrease as employees complete induction training and gain confidence in their roles. Generally induction training is firm specific and focused on acquainting new employees with the company structure, specific job requirements, and organization policies (Bijnens and Vanbuel 2007). A more appropriate indicator of causality would be whether an employee exhibits post-induction training persistence of a lack of skills to perform a job which results in the compromised ability of a firm to meet business objectives. Such an output indicator would then point toward an insufficient induction and integration program, rather than state of completion of the induction or integration program, as a potential source of skills gaps. Nevertheless, firms appear to view transitional stages in the employee induction process as a significant source of skills gaps.

A typology of skills gaps that considers this discussion and captures the present understanding of the source of skills gaps is shown in Figure 2 and explained below:

A typology of the causes of skills gaps

In this figure, we advanced a typology of skills gaps that considers this discussion and captures the present understanding of the source of skills gaps from several national skills surveys.

Market and Institutional Failure Induced Skills Gaps: These are skills gaps which stem from market and institutional failures in the skills formation system. When facing difficulty in recruiting employees from the external labor market under current market conditions due to lack of required skills, work experience, or qualifications a company demands, firms engage in substitution behavior by hiring staff who require further training. Firms may also hire new entrants to the labor market who are apparently trained and qualified for occupations but who are subsequently found to still lack a variety of the skills required. Market and Institutional Failure Induced Skills Gaps are caused by

•Poor Skills Formation Policy: Government coordination of the skills formation system fails to link economic development with the evolution of education and training systems; ensure qualitative and quantitative supply-demand match between outgoing students and the needs of the labor market; facilitate regular, on-the-job training provision and  participation in skills formation by the business community; and address policy, informational, or financial sources of individual underinvestment in skills development or

•Education and Training System Misalignment: Accessibility, quality, and the degree to which education and training systems produce employable students are insufficient to prepare individuals with the skills, work experience, and qualifications to meet labor market needs or

•Insufficient Individual Investment: The many factors which can alter the expected return to particular skills or which signal sectoral growth or promise negatively impact individual skilling decisions.

Human Resources Management Related Skills Gaps: These are skills gaps which are a result of inadequate HR practices related to employee development, motivation, and retention. Human Resources Management Related Skills Gaps are caused by

•Insufficient Staff Development: Depressed levels or inadequately planned training and development that erode creation and production of firm competencies jeopardizing the application of workforce skills toward market-oriented business objectives or

•Poor Retention and Motivation Practices: HR practices that inadequately address employee retention or a misalignment of HR practices with sources of workforce motivation.

Structural Skills Gaps: These are skills gaps which are a result of strategic shifts in response to changing business environments that lead to a mismatch between current workforce skills and the requirements of employers. Structural Skills Gaps are caused by

•Strategic Shifts in Response to Changing Business Environments: Failure to increase and maintain workforce skills to build and renew firm competencies in response to changing business opportunities that may involve adjustments in company strategy, goals, markets, business models, products and services, working practices, or technology. Structural skills gaps can be viewed as a strategy-skills lag in which current workforce skills lag new or expanded skills required by alternative strategic directions associated with competency renewal. Causal ambiguity and environmental complexity makes it difficult for managers to determine the sufficiency of the current human resources pool relative to desired states of the human resources pool to achieve adapted or future business outcomes.

Transitional Skills Gaps: These are skills gaps attributable to the beginning of the employee-employer relationship whether due to recent recruitment or post-merger employee integration. Presumably transitory skill gaps are likely to decrease as employees complete induction training and gain confidence in their roles.