Archive for July 2012



Arab World Research Funders Directory
Organization Brief Description Eligibility Website
Abdul Hameed Shoman Foundation Supports scientific research and encouraging researchers, in particular the young ones Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.shoman.org/en/sci_research.aspx
AGFUND NGO Project Funding Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.agfund.org/asp/forms.asp
Alexander von Humboldt Stiftfung Foundation Has several research support grants. Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.humboldt-foundation.de/web/7806.html
AM Qattan Foundation Guests/Consultants of NGOs who will implement a cultural, artistic, or educational mission/project of limited duration Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen
http://www.qattanfoundation.org/subpage/en/index.asp?SectionID=112
American Academic Research Institute in Iraq Proposals are invited from individual post-doctoral and advanced pre-doctoral researchers for fellowships to conduct research related to Iraq in any field of the humanities or social sciences. Iraq http://www.taarii.org/fellowships.php#1
American Center of Oriental Research
Funded by the Getty Foundation, the fellowships require scholars to affiliate with one of the following overseas research centers: American Academy in Rome; American Center of Oriental Research (Amman); American Institute for Maghrib Studies (Morocco, Tunisia, and Algeria); American Institute for Yemeni Studies (Sana'a); American Research Center in Egypt (Cairo); American Research Institute in Turkey (Istanbul and Ankara); American School of Classical Studies at Athens; and the Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute (Nicosia). Jordan http://www.getty.edu/grants/research/
American Institute for Maghreb Studies Open to Maghreb citizens who are conducting research for a doctoral dissertation or are post doctoral or senior scholars. Algeria Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia http://aimsnorthafrica.org/fellowships/summer_grants.cfm?menu=2
American Institute for Yemeni Studies In order to encourage original research by Yemeni scholars in all fields of the humanities, social sciences, and sciences, the American Institute for Yemeni Studies (AIYS) may support research projects proposed by qualified researchers. Yemen http://www.aiys.org/fellowships.html
American Research Center in Egypt Offers various pre-doctoral and postdoctoral fellowships to Egyptian researchers Egypt http://www.arce.org/grants/fellowships/overview
Arab Authority for Agricultural and Investment Development Offers funding for applied scientific research programs Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.aaaid.org/english/research_introduction.htm
Arab Fund for Arts & Culture direct financial assistance to independent artists and cultural institutions across the Arab region. Individuals, NGOs, cultural and educational organizations, governmental bodies and private companies working in culture and arts in the Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://arabculturefund.org/eng/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=58&Itemid=18
Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development Provides Arab Ph.D. holders who have excellent academic track record with opportunities to conduct research and/or lecture in the best universities of the world. Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.arabfund.org/ENINDEX.HTM
Arab Human Rights Fund Supports projects that respond to potential openings for the advancement of human rights in the region. Opportunities of this sort may include the relaxation of government restrictions in a particular country; increased public engagement and demands for respect for a particular human right; the formation of a new network of organizations
Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.ahrfund.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=56&Itemid=60
Arab Network for NGOs Support for research about the Arab environment for NGOs
Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.shabakaegypt.org
Arab Organization for Agricultural Development
Technical and Scientific Cooperation Program to improve cooperation between Arab, regional and international centers, authorities, and organizations Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.aoad.org/AASYXX.htm
Arab Science and Technology Foundation This program aims at enhancing civilian R&D activities inside the Arab world towards outputs that contribute to the sustained social and economic development. Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.astf.net/site/zone/zone.asp?ogzid=10195
Arab Science and Technology Foundation The Iraq Research and Development Initiative is established by ASTF in collaboration with Sandia National Laboratories and the U.S. Civilian Research and Development Foundation, to engage Iraqi scientists and engineers in research activities. Iraq http://www.astf.net/site/zone/zone.asp?ogzid=10206
Arab Science and Technology Foundation In collaboration with Sandia National Laboratories, the program assists Iraqi experts who have products and/or technologies with commercialization potential.
Iraq http://www.astf.net/site/zone/zone.asp?ogzid=10255
Arab Women's Fund funding for women�s organizations that work toward women�s rights Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.arabwomensfund.org/aboutthefund.php
Australian Center for International Agriculture Research Funding to International Agricultural Research Centres and funding of individual projects Iraq, Afghanistan http://www.aciar.gov.au/ACIARs-research-programs
Barakat Trust Support for the study and research of the material and visual cultures of Islamic societies Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.barakat.org/grants.php
Berlin International Film Festival Support filmmakers from transition countries in the Middle East Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.berlinale.de/en/das_festival/world_cinema_fund/wcf_profil/index.html
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Funds for research on scientific problems that, if solved, could lead to advances against multiple diseases Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.grandchallenges.org/Explorations/Pages/Introduction.aspx
British Academy In an initiative developed by the British Academy's Middle East Panel, two awards of up to �10,000 a year for up to three years are available to support the development of ongoing links between UK and Middle East research centres or institutions, within the humanities and social sciences. Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.britac.ac.uk/funding/guide/intl/mideastap.cfm
Center for Global Development The Center for Global Development an independent Washington-based think tank, invites applications from leading scholars in developing countries for a visiting fellows program Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.cgdev.org/section/about/employment/visiting_fellows_developing_countries
Center of Arab Women for Training and Research CAWTAR considers competitions as instruments to spread awareness and advocacy on issues of concern to it and on its projects.
Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.cawtar.org/index/Lang/en-en/Topic/Competitions
Centre for Science and Technology of the Non-Aligned and Other Developing Countries
Provides scientists and researchers of its member countries an opportunity to affiliate themselves with the scientific institutions located in another member country for upgrading their research skills, undertaking short-term joint projects, delivering lectures, developing linkages and establishing closer cooperation with the scientists/institutions in their fields of interest.

Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Syria http://www.namstct.org/
CIDA/IDRC Receives unsolicited proposals for small research grants or knowledge-related activities.
Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.idrc.ca/en/ev-54473-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html
Commission on Science and Technology for Sustainable Development in the South Sponsors workshops/ seminars/ training programmes in its member countries, as well as has provides research/ study grants and travel grants to scientists/professionals from member countries for participation in international conferences Egypt, Jordan, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, http://www.comsats.org/index.php?link=SponsoringScientificActivities
COMSTECH Facilitates regular visits of professors from OIC region to the Centres of research located in the member states. Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.comstech.org
CORDIS - Community Research & Development Information Service, Calls for Proposals for Research Projects Funding opportunities for international research collaboration Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://cordis.europa.eu/news/calls_en.html
Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa Thesis writing in African Institutions aims to enable the continued development of social science research in Africa by providing graduate researchers with the basic requirements they need to carry out their field-work. Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Sudan, Somalia, Djibouti, Comoros Islands http://www.codesria.org/index.htm
Department for International Development Funding to support partnerships between Higher Education Institutions working on collaborative activity linked to the UN Millennium Development Goals .
Yemen, Sudan http://www.britishcouncil.org/delphe-application-what-can-be-funded.htm
Doris Duke Foundation for Islamic Art The initiative seeks to foster mutual understanding and respect between the Islamic world and the United States by engaging artists, scholars and arts institutions in long-term interchange and collaboration, and engaging audiences in both regions in public dialogue. Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.ddcf.org/page.asp?pageId=355
Economic Research Forum Has traditionally focused on five themes: macroeconomics/finance, international economics, labor and human development, microeconomics (including infrastructure and different sectors), and institutional economics. Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.erf.org.eg/cms.php?id=research_compitition
Emirates Foundation Supports applied education and science and technology research
All grant proposals must be led by or include a significant participation of UAE nationals. Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.emiratesfoundation.ae/english/GrantScholar/index.aspx?ef=grt
European Commission Funding opportunities for international research collaboration Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://ec.europa.eu/grants/index_en.htm#research
European Commission Erasmus Mundus 2009-2013 is a cooperation and mobility programme in the field of higher education that aims to enhance the quality of European higher education and to promote dialogue and understanding between people and cultures through cooperation with third countries.
Algeria, Jordan, Egypt, Lebanon, Morocco, Tunis, Palestine, Tunis http://ec.europa.eu/education/external-relation-programmes/doc70_en.htm

http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/extcoop/call/index.htm
European Partnership for Democracy Small grants Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.eupd.eu/funding
Food and Agricultural Organization of the UN Funding resource database for agricultural research Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.fao.org/forestry/30485/en/
Ford Foundation Academic quality at national universities, leadership training and knowledge development. It also helps Arab universities, operating in an increasingly global and market driven

economy, provide interactive learning, extracurricular activities and opportunities to relate aspects of campus life to the various challenges of democratization and civic engagement.
Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.fordfound.org/regions/middleeastnorthafrica/overview
Friedrich Naumann Foundation The Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Liberty (FNF) is the Foundation for liberal politics. Established in 1958 by Theodor Heuss, the first president of the Federal Republic of Germany, it promotes individual freedom and liberalism.
Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.fnst-egypt.org/eindex.html
Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung Funds research devoted mainly to economic and socio-economic subjects
Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.fes.de/
Fulbright Fulbright Visiting Specialists Program: Direct Access to the Muslim World aims to promote understanding of Islamic civilization and the history, politics, and culture of today�s Muslim world.
Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen
http://www.cies.org/Visiting_Specialists/
Gender Economic Research and Policy Analysis A fellowship/grant for promising PhD students originating from the MENA region and who are planning to conduct their research thesis on a topic related to gender and economics in MENA.
Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Jordan, Palestine/West Bank and Gaza, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Turkey, Iran, Oman, UAE, Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Djibouti http://www.gerparesearch.org/middle.php?sid=22
Georgetown University Center for Contemporary Arab Studies The fellowship will support a recent PhD working on the topic of US-Arab Relations, Arab or Islamic Studies.
The PhD degree must be from a university in the United States; Applicants will be assessed on the originality of their scholarship and the high quality of their academic record http://ccas.georgetown.edu/center-scholarships-qatar_f.cfm
Georgetown University School of Foreign Service Qatar Research Grant in the Study of Migrant Labor in the Gulf Center for International and Regional Studies Georgetown University School of Foreign Service in Qatar Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://cirs.georgetown.edu/research/grants/
Global Environment Facility Grants are made directly to community-based organizations and non-governmental organizations in recognition of the key role they play as a resource and constituency for environment and development concerns. Egypt, Jordan. Lebanon, Morocco, Palestine, Syria, Tunisia, Yemen http://sgp.undp.org/index.cfm?module=ActiveWeb&page=WebPage&s=HowdoesSGPwork
Global Fund for Women Supports women's groups that advance the human rights of women and girls Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.globalfundforwomen.org/cms/grant-criteria/
Global Horticultural Initiative Encourages innovation, the development of new or the modification and adaptation of existing technologies and tools to local conditions, the promotion of scaling-up of successful

innovations and/or best practices.
Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.globalhort.org/activities/research-grants/
GTZ When selecting projects for Germany�s agricultural research for development, BEAF concentrates mainly on the needs of small and medium-scale farmers. In marginal locations, in particular, their crop yields are frequently vulnerable due to a lack of sufficient nutrients, drought or salinisation which inhibit plant growth, and diseases which destroy harvests. Must be done in cooperation with a CGIAR center and a German research institute; Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.gtz.de/en/themen/laendliche-entwicklung/2005.htm
Hivos Hivos funding is approved for specific activities, programmes or organisations as a whole. Organisational funding is a signal of confidence and trust in the partner, based on quality and fruitful co-operation. Syria, Djibouti, Comoros Islands http://www.hivos.nl/virtualoffice/virtual_office/application
Institute of International Education Provides fellowships for established scholars whose lives and work are threatened in their home countries. Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.scholarrescuefund.org/pages/intro.php
International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Financing projects addressing original scientific questions that show a potential contribution of particular relevance for the applicant's country.
Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Morocco, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE http://www.icgeb.org/research-grants.html
International Human Rights Funders Group An association of grant makers devoted to supporting efforts to achieve the rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the treaties and laws it has generated so that all people may enjoy a truly and fully human existence. Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.hrfunders.org/funders/funder.php
International Islamic Organization for Education, Science and Culture The COMSTECH-ISESCO Research Grants programme has been established in response to the needs of promising young researchers in the OIC region, particularly those attached to institutions that lack appropriate research funding for engaging talented young scientists to worthwhile research activity. Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.comstech.org

http://www.isesco.org.ma
Islamic Development Bank Facilitates cooperation between various centres of excellence across member countries by encouraging the formulation of joint projects between the centres and funding research on joint projects through grants.
Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.isdb.org/irj/portal/anonymous?NavigationTarget=navurl://d14c30229d42ff18a5ba4d17e62fe8f8&LightDTNKnobID=-1719245002
Islamic Development Bank Facilitates short term recruitments of Highly Qualified Expatriate Nationals in relevant fields of Science & Technology with a view to support institutional capacity building and development of S&T in OIC member countries. Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.isdb.org/irj/portal/anonymous?NavigationTarget=navurl://d14c30229d42ff18a5ba4d17e62fe8f8&LightDTNKnobID=-1719245002
Jordan River Foundation Project-based partnership with JRF within the realm of the Community Empowerment Program (CEP), Jordan River Children Program (JRCP), or other areas in line with JRF's activities Jordan http://www.jordanriver.jo/Development.asp?Language=E
King Faisal Centre for Research Support for research Projects Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.kfcris.com/index_en.php?page=e-programs
King Faisal Foundation Disbursement of philanthropic grants which directly assist individuals and communities.
Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.kff.com/EN01/KFF/KFFPhilanthropicGrants.html
King Khalid Foundation Grants Program Saudi Arabia http://www.kkf.org.sa/research&studies.htm
Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences Research grants to Kuwaiti institutions and organizations in furtherance of scientific purposes for the benefit of Kuwait and the region. Grants may also be awarded to non-Kuwaiti institutions provided the research project is undertaken in cooperation with a Kuwaiti institution. Kuwait http://www.kfas.org/ga_researchgrants.html
MBI Al Jaber Foundation Funds a wide range of projects including conferences and seminars, art exhibits, theatre and dance performances, expeditions and centres of education. Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.mbifoundation.com/projects/project-applications-and-faqs
Mondriaan Foundation Support artists� initiatives in non-Western countries and to promote international exchanges and the exchange of knowledge with visual arts organisations in the Netherlands. Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.mondriaanfoundation.nl/#/ap/arts_collaboratory
Munib R Masri Development Foundation Financial assistance to technical training colleges, special needs & mainstream schools, research institutes, charitable organizations, cultural organizations, and small / medium size business entrepreneurs Palestine http://www.masrifoundation.org
National Council for Scientific Research Lebanon Programs are carried out in partnership with universities, national research institutions or in affiliated research centers (Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission, the National Center for Marine Sciences, the National Center for Remote Sensing and the Center for Geophysical Research) Lebanon http://www.cnrs.edu.lb/programmes/research.html
National Science Foundation Funding opportunities for international research collaboration Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.nsf.gov/funding/
Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation Support is given to non-governmental international organisations and networks working globally or regionally in fields prioritised by the Norwegian government Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.norad.no/default.asp?V_ITEM_ID=14026
Norwegian Human Rights Fund Financial support to projects in low- and middle income countries where the human rights situation is particularly difficult Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.nhrf.no/#What_is_the_Norwegian_Human_Rights_Fund
OPEC Fund for International Development Focuses on activities that increase South-South and North-South cooperation and enhance capacity-building, including human resource development, particularly in the LDCs. Algeria, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE
http://www.opecfund.org/projects_operations/grant_operations.aspx
Palestine Exploration Fund Research grant Palestine http://www.pef.org.uk/Pages/Grants.htm
Palestinian American Research Center A fellowship program open for scholars who are Palestinian citizens who wish to undertake a specific research project in cultural heritage.
Palestine http://parc-us-pal.org/getty.htm
Poverty and Economic Policy Research Network A awards 20 to 25 grants o to teams of researchers originating from and residing in a developing country. Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen www.pep-net.org
Prince Claus Fund The objective of the Prince Claus Fund is to increase cultural awareness and to promote exchange between culture and development. Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.princeclausfund.org/en/what_we_do/apply/index.shtml
Qatar Foundation Funds research in national priority areas Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.qnrf.org/fund_program/nprp
Roberto Cimetta Fund Funds Contemporary theatre: new theatrical forms, new writing for theatre, dramaturgy, especially travel for authors� meetings, writing workshops Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.cimettafund.org/EN/index.lasso
Rockefeller Foundation Expands opportunities for poor or vulnerable people and to help ensure that globalization's benefits are more widely shared. Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.rockfound.org/grants/grants.shtml
Royal Jordanian Scientific Research Fund/ Ministry of Higher Education The Scientific Research Grant program aims at enhancing outputs that contribute to the sustained social and economic development of Jordan Jordan http://www.srf.gov.jo/contactus/tabid/90/Default.aspx
Safar: Youth Mobility Fund Contributes to building a culture of learning, initiative and inspiration amongst youth in the Arab World Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.safarfund.org/index_en.aspx
Said Foundation Said Foundation helps disadvantaged children in the fields of education, health, disability and risk reduction. It also provides opportunities for children and young people to improve their knowledge and understanding of Arab Culture. Syria, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon and Palestine http://www.saidfoundation.org/whatwedo/apply_project_grant.shtml
Sawiris Foundation The Foundation supports and develops projects that are innovative, answer socio-economic needs, demonstrate potential for success, and can be promoted as a model to be replicated and adapted by other institutions. Egypt http://www.sawirisfoundation.org/en/apply.htm
Science and Technology Development Fund Research Grants are directed towards Young Researchers working in Egypt and willing to restart or continue a Research career in Egypt. Reintegration grants are directed towards Young Egyptian Researchers who have obtained their PhD degree and are willing to return to continue their Research career in Egypt. Basic and Applied Research Grants are directed towards any researcher / group of researcher at all ages and all disciplines whom are willing to participate in an innovative competitive research in Egypt. Egypt http://www.stdf.org.eg/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=12&Itemid=34
Science and Technology Development Fund Agreement on the establishment of an Egyptian-German research fund for the support of joint application-oriented projects, to which each side will

contribute �300,000 (equivalent to around 2.500.000 Egyptian Pound) per year.
Egypt www.stdf.org.eg

http://www.ewa.internationales-buero.de/?project_cat=3

Science and Technology Development Fund Supports the exchange of scientific visits between Egyptian and German research teams. Egypt http://www.stdf.org.eg/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=25&Itemid=70
Social Science Research Council Encourages international multidisciplinary research on topics of pressing global concern. Open to nationals of countries who can demonstrate strong and serious long-term affiliations with research communities in Japan or the United States. Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://fellowships.ssrc.org/abe/detailed_app_criteria/
Society for Arabian Studies Research grants Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.societyforarabianstudies.org/grants.shtml
Society for Libyan Studies Offers occasional grants in aid of research on Libyan topics. These are limited to travel bursaries or small pump-priming grants only Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.britac.ac.uk/institutes/libya/index.htm
Soros Foundation (Open Society Institute) OSI�s Middle East and North Africa Initiative promotes human rights, women�s empowerment, education, and arts and culture in the Arab region. Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.soros.org/initiatives/mena/focus_areas
Sudanese Directorate for Scientific Research and Cultural Relation Reasearch funding program Sudan http://www.uofk.edu/index.php?id=847
Swedish Institute in Alexandria The Swedish Research Council and the Swedish International Development Co-operation Agency (Sida) are sponsoring a programme for the promotion of inter-regional research co-operation. Researchers in Algeria, Egypt, Iraq,

Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Palestine, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen.
http://www.swedenabroad.com/Page____18269.aspx
The Academy of Sciences for the Developing World Funding opportunity through the implementation of the "Joint Project on Capacity Building in Basic Molecular Biology" that aims at creating a network of laboratories involved in research on plant and animal pathogens Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.icgeb.org/icgeb-twas-unescoibsp-joint-project.html
The Academy of Sciences for the Developing World Under this scheme, grants are awarded to high-level promising research projects in biology, chemistry, mathematics and physics carried out by either individual scientists or research units Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://twas.ictp.it/prog/grants/research-grants/
The Academy of Sciences for the Developing World Encourages the pursuit of scientific excellence in OIC countries by identifying and supporting the best young scientists in these countries; reinforcing and promoting scientific research and strengthening the endogenous capacity in science and technology; and counteracting the brain drain and reducing the exodus of scientific talent from the OIC countries.
Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://twas.ictp.it/prog/grants/twas-comstech-joint-research-grants/
The Interacademy Panel on International Issues Broad regional support for academies/networks and activities shared across a

number of different countries/regions
Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.interacademies.net/CMS/Programmes/8644.aspx
UAE National Research Foundation The National Research Foundation (NRF) of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) advances the national research agenda by awarding grants for research on a competitive basis in those fields of endeavour that will improve the quality of life of the citizens of the UAE. UAE http://www.nrf.ae/researchexcellence.aspx#
United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization Fellowships administered directly by the Programme Sectors or the UNESCO Institutes and other Foundations Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=7981&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=-473.html
University of Bergen Gives researchers from academic institutions in the ten Nile Basin countries an opportunity to work together in research groups in a multidisciplinary, fertile academic environment in collaboration with researchers from outside the Nile Basin. Egypt, Sudan http://www.nile.uib.no/vacancies.php
University of Oxford
To promote knowledge, and scholarship on Lebanon through individual research and public lectures. Lebanon http://www.lebanesestudies.com/contents.htm
University of Pittsburgh
The Humanities Center at the University of Pittsburgh seeks a colleague of outstanding promise at work on a major project in any area of the humanities or allied areas of inquiry. Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.pitt.edu/
US State Department Approximately USD $ 4 million per year equally distributed between Egyptian and American scientists working together on joint research activities. Egypt
http://egypt.usembassy.gov/usegypt/grants.htm
Welfare Association Funds projects in education, culture, economic development, health , policy, and agriculture Palestine http://welfare-association.org/en/content/view/29/47/
Wellcome Trust Stimulate dialogue about health research and its impact on the public in a range of community and public contexts in developing countries Algeria, Comoros Islands, Djibouti, Egypt, Libya, Mauritania, Somalia, Sudan, Tunisia http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/Funding/Public-engagement/Grants/International-Engagement-Awards/index.htm http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/Funding/Biomedical-science/International-funding/index.htm
World Health Organization Funds specific research projects in diseases of poverty, which cover infectious diseases and the culture and environment that contribute to these problems. Also supports the development of individuals and institutions in the countries where these diseases are prevalent. Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.who.int/tdr/svc/grants/application-reporting-forms
Young Arab Theatre Fund Encourage the sustainability of the independent artistic scene in the Arab World and to nurture and sustain its development.
Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen http://www.yatfund.org/yatftypo3/httpdocs/index.php?id=12

The Global Economic Impact of Arab Students Studying Abroad Due to Low Quality Educational Systems

We recently looked at statistics on the countries where Arab students are studying abroad. We then aggregated the statistics from 2000 to 2011 to identify the top countries where Arab students chose to study abroad over the last decade. To compute the economic impact of Arab students studying abroad, we computed the average per student economic impact of international students and their dependents on the U.S. economy including tuition and living-expenses, not adjusting for multiplier effects or inflation. For simplicity we have assumed that foreign students are charged tuition on par with US rates, although we recognize this is a very liberal assumption. We chose the US due to the availability of data, although more precise estimates are certainly possible. We estimate that each international student who travels abroad to study contributes $26,000  to the GDP of their host country.

Country# of Arab students studying in the country from 2000-2011
Economic Impact from Arab Students on Host Country
Total1,476,320$38,384,327,020
France677,992$17,627,792,000
US238,813$6,209,145,020
Germany137,621$3,578,146,000
UK135,203$3,515,278,000
Canada52,527$1,365,702,000
Malaysia40,258$1,046,708,000
Ukraine32,939$856,414,000
Australia31,108$808,808,000
Spain28,734$747,084,000
Italy24,482$636,532,000
Belgium23,203$603,278,000
Romania16,089$418,314,000
Switzerland12,993$337,818,000
India12,498$324,948,000
Netherlands11,860$308,360,000


What if we apply a multiplier effect?

The multiplier process relies on the fact that any increase in spending creates income, which generates further consumer spending, creating more income for others. New investment may also be triggered by increased spending. If we assume an autonomous spending multiplier of 1, this means that Arab students studying abroad have generated $77 billion in income for other countries over the last decade without even considering other economic externalities.

Our work on national skills formation models was cited by ConvergeUS, a bipartisan, political network of technology sector CEO’s and senior executives founded in 2011 to mobilize corporations, academic institutions, and other nonprofits to leverage technology to create positive change on critical issues facing American society. Co-Chaired by TechNet’s CEO, Rey Ramsey, and Twitter’s Co-Founder, Biz Stone, ConvergeUS drives technology-based breakthroughs for critical social problems to accelerate social innovation.

PREPARING AMERICA’S 21ST CENTURY WORKFORCE: THE TECH SECTOR WEIGHS IN ON EDUCATIONAL GAPS AND COMMON CORE S…

We are happy to see that the Sheikh Saud bin Saqr Al Qasimi Foundation for Policy Research mentioned our research on knowledge economies in their policy paper on education quality and economic growth in the UAE.  The link to the report is below.

A few comments

  • We can see from the Psacharopoulos and Patrinos data is a trend of increasing returns to education with level. This is certainly a positive evolution which suggests that the current educational policy focus on primary and secondary access must be complemented now with a focus on higher education quality.
  • One point that could receive some more research is probing why Emirati women choose to pursue higher education at higher rates than men. I am not fully convinced by an economic argument for this trend. I can see the economic rationale for the case of men entering the labor market early, but with women I think there are other reasons beyond private rates of return which are motivating their decisions.
  • With TIMSS and PISA scores there has been some concern that countries cherry pick high performing schools for participation. This is certainly something that must be considered when we look at schools from the region. There is likely to be significant variability around school performance.
  • One critical assumption of the knowledge-economy ideology is that economic growth will always produce high skill, high wage jobs. What if this is not the case in the MENA? What if countries like India or other Arab countries like Egypt develop high skill, low wage workforces that compress wages for knowledge-based professions in the Gulf? This is certainly a trend we see with outsourcing from the US and Europe to low cost destinations which are rapidly moving up the value chain of outsourced services.

The report can be found here

A review of the national economic development plans across the region, shows that seventeen of the twenty-two countries in the Arab World have the development of a knowledge-based economy specifically stated as a medium to long-term economic policy objective. here is a timeline which explains how the concept became so widely embraced in the region.

Click here to view a widescreen version

We recently looked at female labor market participation across the region, and discovered some interesting statistics. Qatar and the UAE, for example, are converging quickly upon the female labor market participation rates in the OECD.

There are several competing theories provided by the literature to explain the increase in the relative demand for skilled workers* worldwide. The prevalent demand side theories maintain that expanding international trade ties, skill-biased technological change, or a combination of both forces are the main drivers of this increase**.

From 2000 to 2009, world trade, as measured by the amount of global exports and imports of goods and services as a share of world domestic product, increased by 16.8%, underscoring how much trade has increased over the past decade (World Bank, 2010). Much of this increase can be explained through expanded trade with developing countries. The impact of trade on the demand for skilled labor is in line with the Heckscher-Ohlin Model*** of trade theory and the Stopler-Samuleson**** and the Rybczynski***** Theorems. The Heckscher-Ohlin Model explains how expanded trade increases the incentive of domestic producers to focus on exporting products that utilize abundant and cheap factors of production while importing products that utilize scarce factors. As countries increasingly shift their development policies from import-substitution to export-led growth models, many countries are heavily supporting industry sectors with export potential. This is significant since workers employed in exporting industries tend to be well educated and highly skilled (David H. Autor (Nov., 1998)). Thus, a trade-induced flow of employees from importing, traditionally lower skilled, labor intensive industries, to higher skilled, export-driven industries would increase the overall demand for high skilled workers in economies.

Skill-biased technological change (SBTC) has also been advanced as a main driver for the relative increase in global demand for skilled labor. A major corollary of SBTC is technology-skill complementarity which theorizes that pairing skilled workers with capital has productivity enhancing effects that could contribute to productivity convergence of developing toward developed countries. There is some evidence based on global fixed capital formation that this may be true. From 2000 to 2009, gross fixed capital formation, which includes investments in land improvements, plant, machinery, and equipment, globally grew at a cumulative average annual growth rate of 10% (Bank 2010), representing a flow of US$1.5 quadrillion into capital investments over the past decade. If technological change and capital accumulation of a country favors highly skilled workers and is substitutable for lesser skilled workers, this would likely lower the demand for unskilled labor and increase demand for skilled labor, representing an outward shift in the relative labor demand curve for skilled labor. For example, Autor et al. show that growth in business investment in computers led to skill-biased technological and organizational changes that contributed to faster growth in relative skill demand(David H. Autor (Nov., 1998)). In developed economies, Goos and Manning have shown growth in employment in both the highest-skilled (professional and managerial) and lowest-skilled (personal services) occupations have come at the expense of routine manufacturing and office jobs because technology is increasingly used to perform non routine tasks(Maarten Goos 2009). In developing countries (Sala-i-Martin 1992) find that lagging regions tend to catch up at a real per capita GDP rate of 2 percent per year mainly by absorbing existing technology. Benhabib and Spiegel have found that human capital stock affects the speed of adoption of technology from abroad(Jess Benhabib 1994). Meaning that, as developing countries adopt technology from abroad, the relative demand for skilled labor rises.

Regardless of causality or which theory****** is ultimately more accurate, labor economists agree in general that the demand for skilled labor has increased over time. Globally employers are demanding both higher numbers of skilled workers as well as greater levels of skills competencies from their existing workforce. In many countries, circumstantial evidence points to an unmet demand for highly skilled workers, known as a skills shortage, as well as firms expressing concern that they face internal employee skills deficiencies that limit performance, a phenomenon that has been labeled as a “skills gap.” Skills gaps typically occur due to a lack of or shortfall in soft skills (problem solving, reading, writing, and communication) or technical skills such as familiarity with particular fields of science, engineering, or ICT.

Footnotes

* The term skilled worker has a rather imprecise definition. Many labor force surveys utilize educational attainment as a proxy for a worker’s skill level. Firm-level analyses frequently classify production workers as unskilled and non-production workers as skilled. Krueger (1997) and Slaughter (2000) show that the nonproduction-production classification and educational attainment measures obtain similar results for analyses of data from the United States, and presumably other developed countries. While Gonzaga et. al (2006) maintain that there may be issues with using a production-non-production distinction in developing countries to proxy skill levels.

** It can be shown quantitatively using annual paid employment by economic activity data that demand for skilled labor has grown steadily over the past decade. Based on rather incomplete data on total employment by economic activity from the International Labour Organization for 93 countries, rough calculations show that skilled roles have increased from 1999 to 2008 at a compound annual growth rate of 5.64%. This is a very rough calculation based on increases seen in the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-88) Groups 1-8 including the armed forces. Unskilled employment, which corresponds to the International Standard Classification of Occupations Group 9, decreased at a compound annual growth rate of -.34% from 1999 to 2008.

***A model of international trade building on the Ricardian model of comparative advantage which posits that countries export products that utilize abundant and cheap factors of production while importing products that utilize scarcer factors.

**** States that an increase in the relative price of a good will result in an increase in return to the production factor used intensively in the production of that good and a decrease in return to other factors of production that is being used less intensively.

***** States a rise in endowment of a factor of production in a country will lead to a rise in production of the good which utilizes that factor more intensively and a fall in the output level of the other good which uses that factor less intensively.

****** There are still other potential interpretations for the global tendency towards employing more skilled labor such as the concept of Tinbergen’s race which theorizes that the market for labor can be viewed as a race between the forces increasing the supply of skills – education and experience – and those increasing the demand for skills required by firms – technological change. The decline of unions, which some maintain strengthen the employment of less skilled workers, has also been advanced as a reason for increasing relative demand for skilled workers. As unionization has decreased, the presumption is that employers have substituted more skilled workers for less skilled, unionized workers who previously were able to demand a wage premium due to their union membership.

Although primarily focusing on division of labor and quantities of labor in relation to productivity, Adam Smith touched upon human capital theory when he acknowledged the productivity enhancing impacts of the “dexterity” of workers nearly 200 years ago. Yet, when Pigou (1912)contended that firms would not invest in training their workforce in a free economy due to the threat of turnover and unclear profitability implications, the embrace of human capital theories was far from certain. Pigou maintained that firms seek to maximize “private net product” and have no incentive to train employees for societal benefits which he labeled “social net profit.” Pigou theorized that employer training was unlikely but may occur based upon the prospect of continued employment, which was more likely in industries that produced “proprietary goods” with specialized labor. However, training potential employees, which amounted to investing in “social net profit,” was the responsibility of the government. Several years later Marshall (1920 )broached the topic of human capital in describing general ability, general knowledge and intelligence required by industry, and specialized ability, technical knowledge required for specialized, individual trades. He maintained that specialized, nontransferable manual skill was becoming less demanded as a production factor in favor of general skills. He went as far as to say “… what makes the workers of one town or country more efficient than those of another, is chiefly a superiority in general sagacity and energy which are not specialized to any one occupation.” Marshall championed universal general and technical educational access and improvement as the primary source of general abilities. Rosentein-Rodan (1943) advances this line of reasoning further arguing that large scale industrialization required skilling agrarian workers to transition them for work in industry to raise incomes, reduce unemployment, strengthen national markets, and diversify economies. Similar to Pigou and Marshall, he argues that the state, rather than firms which lose capital by providing training as a result of turnover, is more apt to invest in the Pigouvian ”social net profit” of training a nation’s workers. The effect of these early contributions was to highlight the policy preference at the time for government subsidies for human capital development both in the form of schooling and on-the job training (Acemoglu and Pischke 1998). These contributions also underscore evolving thinking that directly linked skill formation to national economic development, firm-level success, and larger macroeconomic objectives.

Much of the rise of human capital theory and its empirical foundations In the 1960s is attributed to the Second Chicago School of Economics. Due to its origins in the United States, Human capital theory was heavily influenced by the “new” economy in the early twentieth century which was characterized by increased demand for flexible, general, and widely applicable skills not tied to particular occupations met by practical mass education that enabled youths to continue with college or exit for work (Goldin 2001). In this economic environment the concept of the small, entrepreneurial, Marshallian firm was eclipsed by updated theories of production and the firm which focused on large organizations with hierarchical administration and decision making structures competing on product innovation and incremental improvement, increased levels of R&D, and improved distribution rather than physical production (Johnson 1960). Johnson (1960) captures the transition in thinking concerning human capital from the first half of the nineteenth century to the 1960s as follows:

Industrial Revolution, as in the underdeveloped countries today, labour could reasonably be thought of predominantly as the application of crude force, with which individual labourers could be assumed to be roughly equally endowed, together with some decision-taking of a rather trivial kind. But in an advancing industrial society both the provision of force and the elementary decision taking are increasingly taken over by machinery, while what the worker brings to his task are the knowledge and skill required to use machinery effectively. His knowledge and skill in turn are the product of a capital investment in his education in the general capacities of communication and calculation required for participation in the productive process, and the specific capacities required for the individual job, a capital investment which is variously financed by the state, the worker himself, and the employer. Thus the labourer is himself a produced means of production, an item of capital equipment.

It is against this economic and sociological backdrop that the initial empirical foundations of human capital theory emerged. For example, challenging theories that related the natural ability of individuals to income distribution, Mincer operationalized an economic model that linked difference in training levels to wage differentials. His model assumed that individuals, at the time of choosing an occupation, rationally make training decisions based on the expectation that the cost of training (including deferral of earnings for the period of training; cost of the education and equipment such as tuition, books; but not including living expenses) will be equal or less than the present value of lifetime earnings. This equalization implies higher pay in occupations that require more training with the implication that income dispersion is positively related to investment in training.

In advancing this model, Mincer (1958) observes “When labor is subdivided by occupations differing in training and skill, it can be viewed as a set of distinct factors of production differing in the extent of capital accumulated in them.” This statement was one of the earliest references to human capital in modern neoclassical economic literature. In another early example, Schultz breaks with beliefs and values of the time in the economics field that inhibited looking at human beings as wealth that can be augmented by investment by drawing a link between investment in human capital and economic growth and productivity. Schultz maintained that not including human capital as a form of capital influenced by investment perpetuated the notion of labor as the capacity of homogenous workers to do manual work requiring little knowledge and skill. He observed that knowledge and skill are products of human capital investment and account for the productive superiority of technically advanced countries (Schultz 1961).

The link between human capital and economic growth was made more specific by Becker who observed “Since human capital is embodied knowledge and skills, and economic development depends on advances in technological and scientific knowledge, development presumably depends on the accumulation of human capital (Becker 1994).” The work of Becker laid the foundation for a more comprehensive definition of human capital that incorporated the knowledge, skills, and abilities of individuals and has shaped much of the current thinking on human capital (Acemoglu and Pischke 1998). As described in Figure X below, Becker (1962) defines two categories of human capital: specific and general. General human capital is defined as skills which are useful to many firms or which are broadly useful in certain country, industry, or occupational contexts. He argues that individuals pursue general skilling as long as the value stream of future higher earnings are more than net earnings foregone, training, and equipment expenses. Because the property rights to general training vest with individuals who derive higher wages from higher levels of training, Becker reasons that individuals would be willing and incentivized to pay the costs of general skilling. In a competitive labor market in which generally trained employees received their marginal product, firms would be incapable of recouping their investment in general training and would be unlikely to pay for general training. If a firm did provide generalized skills, in the form of say an apprenticeship, the firm would seek to shift the skilling cost onto the trainee in the form of lower wages. Specific human capital consists of firm-specific skills with productivity enhancing effects that would have no effect on productivity if deployed outside the firm. Because firms are more able to recoup the costs of specific skilling investments, specific training would be provided by firms whenever the return discounted at an appropriate rate is at least as large as the cost of training. Becker maintains that employees would not be willing to pay for specific skilling since property rights accrue to the firm, and the ability of a specifically trained employee to demand higher wages elsewhere is independent of his level of specific skills. The willingness of firms to pay for specific skilling, however, is tempered by the likelihood of turnover. For this reason, firms offer specifically trained employees a pay premium to preserve their capital investment in training.

It is generally accepted that a key source of global competitiveness is the skills of a nation’s workforce. Thus, the education and training offered through national skills formation systems has a very critical role to play in determining competitiveness. Education practitioners, economists, sociologists, and political scientists have all recognized the importance of education and training to economic development in various theories of skills formation.

There is no single theory which adequately explains the complexities of the linkage between skills formation and economic development. However, several commonalities amongst these theories emerge:

• High skills production systems are associated with competitiveness and strong economies; but low skills alternatives may be necessary given constraints to higher level skills formation;
• Sufficiently high levels of general education are required by the workforce for higher skill production;
• Effective institutions that prevent market failure related underinvestment in skills, provide adequate regulation, and coordinate stakeholders are key elements of effective skills formation systems;
• There is no one ideal national education and training system architecture that can satisfy the needs of all production systems; The optimal form is shaped by social, historical, and cultural, and organizational factors, as well as level of economic development;
• Without sufficient systemic incentives or in the presence of labor market constraints both individuals and firms underinvest in education and training.

While there is no single accepted definition of the term knowledge-based economy, one of the most widely cited papers on the subject defines knowledge-based economy as “production and services based on knowledge-intensive activities that contribute to an accelerated pace of technological and scientific advance as well as equally rapid obsolescence. The key component of a knowledge economy is a greater reliance on intellectual capabilities than on physical inputs or natural resources (Powell and Snellman 2004).” In the Arab World, knowledge-based economic development has become closely intertwined with national competitiveness and economic policies that support innovation, technology development, entrepreneurship, workforce skills development, adoption of high performance organizational structures, and ICT infrastructure development (Planning 2010).

Based on the development experience of countries such as Finland, Singapore, Korea, United States, and United Kingdom, Rischard (2009) identifies five common economic development justifications (job creation, economic integration, economic diversification, environmental sustainability, and social development) which underpinned successful transitions to knowledge-based economies. A review of the national economic development plans across the region, detailed in Figure 1, shows that seventeen of the twenty-two countries in the Arab World have the development of a knowledge-based economy specifically stated as a medium to long-term economic policy objective. Applying the economic justifications for pursuit of knowledge-based economic development identified by Rischard to the countries of the Arab World, nearly all of the Arab countries specifically state the determinants shown by international example to be associated with successful transitions to more knowledge based economic development as objectives in their national economic development plans.

Djeflat (2009) observes that the transition to knowledge-based economies emerged as a development goal in many countries in the region in the late Nineties due to the commonality of several factors related to culture, the economic environment, and socio-political developments. Sawhel (2009) cites the historical importance of the quest for learning and knowledge influenced by religious beliefs, the brain drain of prominent Arab academics and scientists, and the perception that the Arab World is lagging behind in development as cultural factors for leading to the embrace of knowledge-based development.

The literature describing the economic factors contributing to the movement towards knowledge-based economic development is substantial. Al-Ali (1991) provides evidence that suggests countries in the region are dependent on foreign technologies while concurrently facing shortages finding qualified employees and not having the capacity to transfer technologies in a way that develops the local workforce. High levels of capital formation have not been accompanied by gains in higher value added industry specialization and increased export capabilities resulting in the prominence of low-grade industries in many countries which can be characterized as ‘bazar economies’ (Djeflat 2009). Though FDI grew at a compound annual growth rate of 33% from 2000 to 2009, the Arab world attracted only $41 billion, or 4% of worldwide foreign direct investment flows, in 2009 while emerging regions like Latin America and the Caribbean attracted 7% and East Asia and the Pacific attracted 19%(Bank 2010). Low levels of total factor productivity have resulted in reduced overall efficiency from capital investments. For example, between 1975 and 2000 the only countries in the Arab World with positive total factor productivity growth were Egypt, Oman, Syria, and Tunisia (Sala-i-Martin and Artadi 2002). Economic integration, driven by the accession of several Arab countries to the WTO and globalization, necessitated the adoption of economic reforms to improve the enabling environment for business, entrepreneurship, and attraction of foreign direct investment (Program 2002). The importance of reforms concerning the enabling environment for business are underscored by the industrial structure of the region in which small and medium sized businesses represent 90% of companies and employ an estimated 40-65% of the workforce (Hertog 2010). Volatility in oil prices, which led to regional boom and bust cycles, has highlighted the need for more diversified economies (Program 2003). The region is also facing the uncertainty posed by a post-petroleum and post-carbon era which requires preparation now for major water, energy, food, climate change, and other issues (Rischard 2009). R&D spending, a critical input for knowledge-based economic development, in the Arab World has been consistently below average for over four decades, ranging from 0.1 to 1.0% of GDP, and overly reliant on government spending, whereas advanced countries spend over 2.5% of GDP on R&D and have significant levels of private sector spending (United Nations Educational 2010). The low levels of regional R&D led to a renewed awareness in the Nineties of the importance of science and technology for development that precipitated R&D policies to foster innovation systems and educational reform (Djeflat 2009). Many of the Arab countries are making significant progress in developing the ICT infrastructure to support knowledge-based economies which exceeds levels of development in other regions (Foundation and Program 2009).

The youth bulge has featured prominently in socio-political literature on knowledge based economic development in the Arab World. Though estimates vary based on population growth assumptions, there are approximately 66 million Arab youth currently between the ages of 15-24 which is expected to swell to 88 million by 2030. Youth between the ages of 15-24 make up 20% of the total population (Secretariat 2008). The region’s youthful demographics, is viewed both as an enabler of economic growth and a potential threat. Dhillion and Yousef (2009) maintain that regional development has bypassed young people due to institutional weakness which has left youth worse off than previous generations that received free education, public sector job guarantees, and strong state support in the form of subsidies and entitlements. For many Arab youths this has meant chronic and persistent unemployment with an estimated 24% of Arab youth currently unemployed. From 1998 to 2008, the number of unemployed youth increased by 25%, a trend that is expected to continue into the future (Organization 2010). The Arab World has achieved notable gains in access to education which has had the unintended effect of a supply shock in which the supply of highly educated youth has outpaced job creation (Program 2010). Due to several Arab countries achieving gender parity, or close to it, in schooling, Female labor market inclusion has become a policy priority in nearly all Arab countries (United Nations Educational 2010). Demographic pressures have strained public sector employment, which is preferred to private sector employment regionally, and education systems which are not well suited to the needs of knowledge-based economic development (Dhillon and Yousef 2009). While the public sector may continue to be a source of employment, increasingly private sector employment is absorbing unemployed and new graduate job seekers (Yousef 2005). In the Gulf countries, a further complication is the presence of a large expatriate labor force employed in the private sector with the native population almost entirely employed in the public sector. Whereas a youthful, growing labor market can be beneficial to economic development if it is accompanied by job creation as it has been in East and Southeast Asia, this has not been the case in the Arab World with many youths becoming unemployed, discouraged, or entering the informal economy (Organization 2010). The discontent amongst Arab youth is particularly significant in light of recent events since Urdal (2006) finds a relationship between youth bulges experiencing economic hardship and political violence.

International organizations have stressed the catalytic value of political reform in the Arab region to form an enabling environment for knowledge-based economic development arguing that “many of the values and achievements of the knowledge society are inseparable from freedom and the construction of social and institutional contracts in support of a state in which individual rights and the rule of law are preserved (Foundation and Program 2009).” These objectives have proceeded at varying rates across the region with indices generally showing an increase in political rights, civil liberties, and economic freedom (Foundation and Program 2009; House 2011; Miller and Holmes 2011). The work of international organizations such as the World Bank and the United Nations Development Program has paralleled government reform towards knowledge-based economies in the Arab World with funding, technical assistance, and advocacy. For example, from 1990 to 2010 the World Bank lent approximately $3.4 billion dollars, primarily to Egypt, Jordan, and Tunisia, for education projects specifically targeted at knowledge-based economic development(Bank 2011). The World Bank also hosted a conference in 2009 that led to the ‘Tunis Declaration on Building Knowledge Economies’ which called for the establishment of a convening body under the Islamic Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization funded by member states (Institute 2009). Under the direction of Rima Khalaf, the United Nations Development Program published the highly influential Arab Human Development Report series in 2002 and 2003 which advocated a number of reforms and provided a roadmap for Arab governments to advance toward knowledge-based economic development (Lord 2008).